Abortion Essay

Published: 2021-07-06 23:09:33
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Abortion involved pregnancy ending through removing of a fetus or an embryo before developing to have independent survival outside the mother’s uterus. Any abortion that occurs spontaneous is refereed as miscarriage. On the other side, the one that happens purposely is kwon as induced abortion or induced miscarriage (Sumner). However the term abortion is regularly used by most people to mean induced abortion only. The phrase “Late Termination of Pregnancy” is used to refer to a procedure that is done to terminate a pregnancy but the fetus can potentially survive afterward outside the mother’s uterus or womb.Types of abortionsInducedNearly 205 million number of pregnancy occur every year worldwide. Approximately one third are unplanned pregnancies and around one fifth are terminated. A pregnancy can be terminated intentionally in numerous ways. The type of termination depends upon the gestation period of the fetus or embryo (Sarvis and Rodman). The embryo of fetus increase their size with progress of the pregnancy. The procedure selected depends as well on the preference of the woman, religious beliefs and the legality of this procedure.The reasons for inducing abortion are typical categorized as either elective or therapeutic. A therapeutic abortion is a medical abortion that is induced purposely to save the life of the mother: to avoid harm to the physical and mental health of the mother. Another reason for therapeutic abortion is to terminate the pregnancy that is evident that the infant has high morbidity or mortally chances or to intentionally reduce the number of pregnancy so that multiple pregnancy risks are counteracted. An abortion is called voluntary or elective when the mother request it because of non-medical reasons (Vaughn). Elective surgery can be done in either voluntary or medical abortion.SpontaneousSpontaneous abortion is also refereed as miscarriage. It is the unintentional fetus or embryo expulsion before the twenty fourth gestation week. A pregnancy that is aborted after 37 week is called as premature birth because this child can survive. The death of a fetus after viability or at delivery is named as stillbirth and not miscarriage. Most miscarriage occur before even the woman is aware of this pregnancy. Very few women have miscarriage after they are aware of their pregnancy.The most popular spontaneous abortion cause in the first trimester is fetus or embryo chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosomal abnormalities accounts for almost 50 percent of early pregnancy miscarriage. Other causes of miscarriage include diabetes, infections, hormonal problems as well as the uterus abnormalities. The history of a woman and progressing maternal are the leading risk factors related with spontaneous abortion. Traumatic injury is another potential cause of miscarriage because it exerts pressure on the pregnancy.MethodsMedical abortionThese are abortions that are induced using an abortifacient pharmaceutical. The most popular medical abortion in the first trimester are a combination of prostaglandin analog and mifepristone. Integration of methotrexate and prostaglandin analog or prostaglandin analog is used in pregnancy to up to 7 weeks. A misoprostol-mifepristone regimen is more effective in the last stages of gestation period. The medical pregnancy termination regiments include mifepristone then misoprostol are effective before sixty three days of gestation.SurgicalThe vacuum aspiration or suction-aspiration are the most popular surgical induced methods of abortion. It involves the removal of embryo or fetus, membranes and placenta through suction using the manual syringe or Electric Vacuum Aspiration (EVA) which use electric pump.Labor Induction AbortionIn some situations practitioners can prefer inducing labor first followed by fetal demise induction is necessary. This is at times referred as induced miscarriage. This procedure is appropriate between 13 weeks and the third trimester. However complications may arise in induced labor after eighteen weeks (Railsback).Other methodsHistorically, numerous herbs are known to have abortifacient properties. They include pennyroyal, tansy, silphium as well as black cohosh.Abortion controversyAbortion is one of the controversy that has raised numerous debated worldwide. It is a controversy that is surrounding legal, religious, and moral status of any induced pregnancy. The sides that are involved are the pro-life and prochoice movements. Pro-life emphasizes that the embryo has a right to get to gestation period. On the other hand the pro-choice emphasizes that the mother has the right of keeping the pregnancy to term or terminating it. Various terms are used to refer to this side such as ant-abortion as well as abortion rights. Every side works hard in trying to gain the public in to their views using numerous explanations (Sarvis and Rodman). This debates has resulted to various movements in the society and states such as anti-abortion campaigns as well as government implementing various laws that give conditions for abortions. Different cultures and different nations have their own view of abortion.The opposing argumentsDeprivation argumentThe deprivation argument explains that abortion is a serious moral wrong since it deprives a fetus who has a valuable future. As it is with murder where an adult is deprived a future, so it is with abortion. This argument is based on the utilitarianism as well as justice to the unborn. It explain the philosophic argument on the value of the fetus.Don Marquis argues in his assay that abortion is immoral since it deprives the fetus of the valuable future. Marquis starts by arguing that the thing that makes killing a normal adult is the fact that killing causes harm on this victim. This harm is not to friends or neighbors or relatives but to the victim since it deprives the valuable future of this victim. All valuable activities, experience, enjoyment as well as projects are deprived that this individual was to have (Marquis). Thus, if this fetus aborted had the same valuable future then killing this being is seriously wrong as well as harmful. A fetus has a future as any human being (Sarvis and Rodman). The fetus can grow to do all that every human being does. Therefore, deliberate abortions are as seriously immoral as killing an innocent adult person in the society.A result of this argument is that termination of pregnancy or abortion is not appropriate at any case. It is equal to killing a person or child with a valuable future. For instance, the experience that the embryo will have after being born does not satisfy doing abortion. It is like killing a patient who has a lot of pain through euthanasia or killing a six year old child because of the infliction that is likely to affect him. For instance, unloving parents raising this child. Likewise, killing a human being or a child may be allowed as a result of self-defense however this does not apply to the abortion standards.This argument of Marquis has induced numerous objection. The objection follow numerous threats. First, many argues that if abortion is not appropriate at any point then the ova and sperm need to be conserved. It also declares use of contraceptives is as well wrong. Even people who believe that usage of contraception is wrong, they do not accept this theory. Second, some argue that a fetus has no personal identity as an adult human being. Third, other argues that depriving a fetus a future cannot be likened to depriving an adult life or murder. Finally, not all abortions are illegal as other threaten to take the life of the woman. Therefore, such pregnancies cannot be equalized to murder.Religious beliefs argumentsDifferent religion has different views about the abortion moral implications. The views at time oppose one another. The moral principle in the religious context are mainly based on respect for life and justice.Christians identify abortion as wrong act in the community that should not be allowed. Abortion is identified as an immoral act that is sinful. For instance, the Eastern Orthodox, Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, as well as other protestant churches oppose any deliberate abortion. They only allow abortion that are indirect, the ones that do not seek to terminate the life of the fetus. However, the scholars disagree on the early Christian views concerning abortion. There is no specific verse in the bible in either the new or the Old Testament that talks about abortion (Sarvis and Rodman). However as the book of Jeremiah states, “Before I formed you in the womb, I knew you, before you were born, I set you apart; I appointed you as a prophet to the nations.” Therefore God is the creator and the fetus is creature that God is aware about. Then the Christians believe that every fetus has a valuable future. The scholarly works have taken an assumption that at that in the early church those were rare incidents. Whereas others have said that abortion was total wrong in the early church days. Later, the council started punishing women. Therefore, most Christians are pro-life since the bible declares that God knows every individual even before birth. At the same time the bible always is clear on the importance of human life. As a result of these teachings of the bible, Christian values even the life of the fetus or embryo and therefore advocate for ant-abortion campaigns in the society. Abortion is not allowed at any point of the gestation period. However, they not against abortion if both the life of the fetus and the baby are at danger.On the other hand, Hindus strongly object abortion. The Hindus advocate that in any case both the mother and the fetus should be considered. The Hindus banned abortion since a boy child was highly preferred in the community leading to termination of girl child pregnancy. The value of boy child made many women to abort so that they do not have many girls. At the same, some Hindu theologians believe that personhood of an individual starts at three months of gestation period. Therefore, any pregnancy more than three months cannot be terminated because it is a real human being.Similarly, the most Islamic scholars objects termination of a pregnancy that is more than 120 days. The islands believe that life starting after 120 days. Therefore termination of pregnancy that is more than 120 days is equated to murder. The Quran does not have any information about abortion but it highly condemns intentional human being murder. Therefore, the more the pregnancies progresses, the more it is wrong to do abortion. This is because the fetus has become a soul and thus terminating it is similar to intentional murder that the Quran objects.Not only the Hindu, Christians and Islam consider abortion as immoral but also the Sikhism. In Sikhism highly object abortion. This is because it tampers with the creative work of their creator, God. Their code of conduct has not stated anything about abortion however it is highly discouraged in the society. The creativity of god is important and God is responsible of forming the fetus in the womb of a woman. Termination of this pregnancy is dishonoring the work of God. Therefore, abortion is highly categorized as immoral before the society and the creator of everything in the world.Arguments from uncertaintySome ant-abortion supporters state that if there exists uncertainty that the embryo has the right to live then doing an abortion is equivalent to taking a risk consciously to kill another person. According to this opinion, if the probability of something to have life is not known then it is serious immoral to handle or treat that thing in a way that suggest that it has no right to life such as killing it. This argument places abortion in the same class as manslaughter or some criminal negligence form. Therefore, it shows that abortion implies that the fetus has no right to life. This argument is based on justice of the unborn.In contrast David Boonin says that if this opinion was right, then even killing plants and other animals would also be classified as morally wrong. This is because it is not clear whether this animals and plant have the right to life as well (Sarvis and Rodman).Discrimination argumentThe discrimination argument argues that abortion is an act that result in discriminating the unborn. According to this opinion, people who disagree that the fetus or the embryo has a right to life, they do not value the importance of human life. However, they select randomly characteristics such as psychological or physical level of development. Therefore, they give other people more values than others in the community.In contrast, different philosophers define the right to life in reference to psychological or physical levels maintain that those traits are ethically relevant. They object the assumption that every life of a human being certainly has value. For instance the members of Homo sapiens have human life or are morally relevant.This argument is based on justice to the unborn. The fetus should not be discriminated and terminated yet it is innocents.Personal position before the researchBefore the research, I have always considered abortion to be neither moral nor immoral but a choice. Abortion is a choice that is based on woman’s right. This is because the woman is the one in judge of her body. For example, like the owner of a property has the right to sell his property so does the woman has that right to do anything to her body. The decision of aborting or not depends on the decision of the woman. A woman can make a choice of using abortion as birth control method. At the same time she can make the decision of choosing the baby to carry. If the woman prefers a male child and realizes that she is not having a boy then she can make a choice of aborting this fetus. Therefore, a woman has the right of controlling her body depending on the circumstances she is experiencing.Abortion had no meaning more than just terminating a pregnancy. A fetus has nothing to do with the human life. It is just a combination of a sperm and ovum. Both women and men in the society understand that their germ cells have no significance. Male experience wet dreams resulting in the removal of the sperms. At the same time, women also experience their monthly menses that result in the removal of the ovum. Such incidents are not immoral when done in the right time and the right way. However when they are done in a wrong place, way or time then they can be classified as immoral. Therefore, a combination of the two followed by their removal is also dependent on the way, place and time. This are the factors that can classify them as immoral.Abortion being moral or immoral as well depended on the circumstances that are surrounding the pregnant woman. When a woman uses her circumstance to make a decision on the way forward after getting pregnant then abortion is moral. For instance, a woman can have unplanned pregnancy. The women weighs the situation and founds that the baby and her cannot be comfortable then it is better to terminate the pregnancy. This is a moral act rather than letting the child grown to be a street child. At the same time, the woman can terminate the pregnancy if this pregnancy threatens her life. It is illogical to keep pregnancy yet it is threatening life. In such situations then abortion is a moral act. However at the same time, terminating the pregnancy for no reason it is an immoral act. This is like killing an innocent person in the society. As the natural law states that killing is wrong then, abortion of this nature will be classified as immoral. Therefore, abortion takes the moral or immoral direction depending on the motivating situation that leads to it.The method used terminating the pregnancy also classifies abortion as moral or immoral. There are several methods used in terminating a pregnancy. Any method that threatens the life of the mother makes abortion an immoral act. Use of unapproved equipment, medication or methods for abortion procedure is wrong. These illegal procedures and equipment endanger the life of a woman. For instance, taking a soap detergent, undiluted juice, over medication is immoral abortion acts. A woman who accepts to use such things is committing an immoral act. However, when a woman goes to the hospital or call an expert to do the abortion then it is moral act. Therefore, the method that the woman uses is important in classifying abortion to be moral or immoral act. Any methods that affecting the woman life then gives abortion a reason to be immoral.The answers from praying God also described the act to be chosen. God is the creator of everything. Once asked whether he has a purpose for the developing fetus and gives a signal saying yes or no then the answer should be the choosing line. At times other children can be born and transgress the laws of God or lead many people to doing evil. God, who is all knowing, can send a signal to terminate such pregnancies while other children may be influential to doing the right acts. If woman who terminates a pregnancy because God has signaled and accepted the termination of this pregnancy then this act is moral. However, ignoring the answer from God as well categorizes abortion as an immoral act. Therefore, abortion at times is the will of God that she sends to women t terminate evil children from the society and thus it is moral.Basis of this judgment This judgment on the abortion controversy was bases on the Begging of Human Personality theory. According to this theory, a human being in the moral sense means a member of the society who is full-fledged and a well-developed biological being. The embryo does not have this characteristic. As a result an embryo or a fetus cannot be equivalent to a person. At the same time, the embryo cannot be characterized as an animal. The embryo or fetus does not have consciousness, any reasoning and any self-motivated actions. Likewise, it does not communicate. A person has at least five senses which an embryo does not portray. Therefore the decision that a mother takes does not affect the embryo as it would have affected a human being.Similarly, natural laws theory as well influenced my position. According to this theory, a woman has the ability to determine the circumstances that affect her body. The fetus at times can affect the health of the woman. The natural laws theories approves the abortion of this fetus. As the finger pulls against a stimulus substance so does the woman. In this case then a stimulus substance must be present to case the action. Therefore, a woman has to abort as a natural medicine to the life threatening fetus.At the same time the scriptural principles influenced my understanding on the abortion controversy. The principle of pray to God assures answers from God. God being he creator He understand everything, all knowing. Therefore there is no way he can allow an evil child to be given birth or a good child to be aborted. Therefore, God as the ability of classifying abortion as moral or immoral. Therefore there are circumstances that abortion is moral act as it is the will of God.Personal position after the researchMy personal position changed after this research. I now believe that abortion is totally wrong except in situations that the pregnancy is threatening the life of the woman. The fetus as a right to life. This fetus should be allowed to develop no matter whether it was unplanned pregnancy. A fetus is like an innocent human being. Abortion is more of another form of murder. The fetus is no longer an ova or sperms that are joined together. This fetus has a connection to the mother and thus can be said to be a life. Therefore aborting such beings is actually destroying a valuable future. This being may have the potential of doing great things in future. I agree with the deprivation argument that this beings will have a values after developing that may change the world.At the same time, as the weak in the society are discriminated so is abortion to the fetus. It is true that fetus cannot communicate. As a result they have no ability of defending their life, hence abortion is discriminating them and isolating them, from existence in the world. This discrimination is an immoral act even in the current world. It heart breaks when a normal adult person is discriminated in the society because of her weaknesses. Therefore abortion is discrimination of the highest rank that the unconscious, not-reasoning and not communicating fetus are subjected to by their own mothers. It is like man slaughtering an innocent being who cannot defend himself in anyway.Not forgetting the new scriptural principle that I learned that changed my point of view on abortion. God is the one who allows the fetus to form in the womb of the mother. In this view human life is important in the society and before the eyes of God. God has purpose for every fetus that is formed. Intentional pregnancy termination is not moral before God. In every religion abortion is classified as an evil act. Thus affecting my understanding of the moral principal of prayer. It is very clear that God cannot signal a woman to do an abortion. Therefore, human life that begins from formation of an embryo to a fetus then given birth to a child need to be highly respected by every individual.However, I still stand for abortion as a moral act in situations that are life threatening. Pregnancies that threaten the life of the woman can be aborted. It is better to lose one rather than losing both, the fetus and the mother. The fetus need justice, respect of life as well as the mother.Work CitedMarquis, Don. “An Argument That Abortion Is Wrong.” Ethical Theory: An Anthology, 2007, pp. 439–450.Railsback, Celeste Condit. “The Contemporary American Abortion Controversy: Stages in the Argument.” Quarterly Journal of Speech, vol. 70, no. 4, 1984, pp. 410–424.Sarvis, Betty, and Hyman Rodman. The Abortion Controversy. Columbia U. Press, 1973.Sumner, Leonard Wayne. Abortion and Moral Theory. Princeton University Press, 2014.Vaughn, Lewis. Doing Ethics: Moral Reasoning and Contemporary Issues. WW Norton & Company, 2015.

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