Alzheimer’s in the United Kingdom

Published: 2021-07-07 00:24:50
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Methodology (1000 words)The method of qualitative research has been adopted to prepare this report. Qualitative research works on the idea of the development of a theory and then proving it in the light of previous literature and current reports from the field. Moreover, no statistical data sets are formed for this method of research; neither are the hypotheses provided nor statistically tested for the carrying out this research. Furthermore, the data sources of qualitative research comprise of reports, journal articles, research papers, relevant books, interviews, and newspaper articles from the relevant areas. Above all, comprehensive and extensive online research is carried out in this regard.Seeing this implication of the qualitative research, this report has developed the theory that dementia is a deadly disease; and Alzheimer’s is the most commonly found cause of dementia in the United Kingdom. Moreover, it has developed a link between the prevalence of the disease among the ethnic communities and minorities of the country and the level of poverty. The report has also discussed the economic impact of the deadly disease of dementia on the country; and thus, has provided the reason for the All Party Parliamentary Group to get alarmed and take suitable, relevant actions. In the end, under the light of all the findings and advocating all the reasons, the report has provided the possible implications of the Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020.Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia in the world and the United Kingdom. To find statistics on this finding, the reports of Alzheimer’s Society have been used. It is the leading dementia support and research charity of the United Kingdom (Alzheimer’s Society official website). It covers the population suffering from dementia in the England, Wales and Northern Ireland (Alzheimer’s Society official website). The charity has progressively been producing reports on the status of dementia in the country (Alzheimer’s Society official website). Moreover, the reports and findings of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) have also been used for supporting the evidence in this regard. It provides services for guidance, advice, quality standards and information in the sectors of health, public health and social care (NICE official website). Thus, reliance has been made on these reports with the purpose of supporting the arguments for the Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020 (Gov.UK Policy Paper, 2015).Research papers and journal articles have been used in this report for the purpose of supporting the arguments for the symptoms and the importance of diagnosis in the context of dementia. The data was searched using a variety of keywords such as definition of dementia, what is dementia?, symptom of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, Alzheimer’s disease statistics in the United Kingdom, Alzheimer’s disease and the ethnic communities of the United Kingdom, why is dementia deadly?, dementia and poverty in the United Kingdom, the economic impact of dementia on the United Kingdom, what is the Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020?, what are the implications of the Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020?, is the Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020 helpful for the United Kingdom?, and others.From the extensive online research, several journal articles and research papers on the relevant topic were found. For instance, Jenny Mackenzie wrote a research paper in 2006 on the negotiation of Stigma in the country by the East European and South Asian family carers. It is an important piece of work because it demonstrates findings from a three-year project for developing and delivering culturally appropriate group materials for the family carers of the ethnic communities in the country (Mackenzie, 2006). Similarly, the paper of Beam & Davidson has been used to find out the trends of the disease in England. Additionally, the work of Prince et al., (2014) has been used to discuss the double-fold effect of dementia among the ethnic communities of the United Kingdom.Furthermore, several official reports from the forums of Alzheimer’s Research UK, British Association of Social Workers, Alzheimer’s Society and Alzheimer Europe. All of these reports have been used to describe several parts of the discussion. For instance, the official reports of Alzheimer’s Society have been used to explain and elaborate the details regarding the deadly disease, i.e., dementia. From these reports, it has been found that this disease affects people’s ability in various ways including the mental capacity of an individual (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). It was also found that dementia also aggravates the signs of depression and aggressive behaviors (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). The reports have also been used for referring to statistics in this report in the context of dementia in the United Kingdom.Likewise, the official reports from Alzheimer Europe have been used for discussing the progress of the program in the second year of its implementation. It has been found that the program was able to achieve certain goals including the launch of the national recognition process, Dementia friendly financial services charter, and several Dementia Friends campaigns (Alzheimer Europe, 2014). From these reports, it has also been found the project is ambitious about publishing a code of practice to achieve its goals and objectives in an organized manner (Alzheimer Europe, 2014).Moreover, the involvement of ethnic communities in the context of dementia has also been assessed using several sources like reports and academic papers. For instance, the official reports have been accessed to find that at least twenty-five thousand people who have dementia in 2011 were from the ethnic background; it included minorities in the form of black and Asian communities lives in England and Wales (Alzheimer’s Society, 2012). It has also been found that by 2026, the number is expected to be increased by double, i.e., up to fifty-thousand and by the year of 2051, the number will increase up to approximately one-hundred and seventy-two thousand people (Social Care Institute for Excellence).Results (1500 words)It has been found that Alzheimer is the most common cause of dementia in the world today. As per the research, it affects the human brain and leads to dementia (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). This disease affects people’s ability in various ways including the mental capacity of an individual (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). Talking about the symptoms of the disease, the most common effect of dementia is the loss of memory (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). Memory loss is one of the early signs of the disease. Moreover, it disturbs the ability of a person to reason. It also aggravates the signs of depression and aggressive behaviors (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016).Moreover, dementia can also affect a person’s ability to communicate effectively. The primary reason behind the development of this disability in an individual lies in the fact that dementia creates a loss of contact with external reality (psychosis) of a person and he can become incontinence. For this reason, certain people with dementia can become delusional and begin to experience hallucinations. In 2016, Stanyon et al. conducted thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews of sixteen healthcare workers to know their views with the purpose of understanding the context of facilitators of communication with people with dementia in a care setting. The researchers covered four overarching categories of themes in the interviews: the physical characteristics of the care environment, organizational factors, communication strategies used, and the attributes of a care worker (Stanyon et al., 2016). The researchers found that although the workers used variety of communication techniques but most of them have not been discussed in the past literature, i.e., they lack empirical support. Based on their findings, the researchers suggested that the participants must be trained under future dementia training programs (Stanyon et al., 2016).Some of the people with dementia also develop eating problems which can lead to weight loss and unnecessary sickness for prolonged periods. The deadly disease of dementia can also affect the mobility of an individual. Thus, dementia can cause a person to develop other health conditions. A study was published in 2002 in which Ikeda et al. studied the changes in eating habits, food preferences and changes in appetite in Alzheimer’s Society and frontotemporal dementia with the aim of investigating the frequency changes and development pattern in their eating behaviors. Three groups of patients with the Alzheimer’s disease, semantic dementia and frontotemporal dementia (Ikeda et al., 2002). All of the patients had similar level of education and dementia severity (Ikeda et al., 2002). Data was collected through thirty-six questions investigating five domains including oral behaviors, eating habits, food preferences, appetite change, and swallowing problems (Ikeda et al., 2002). The results of the study indicated frequency of all domains except for swallowing problems in the group of people with Alzheimer’s disease whereas frequency of changes in eating habits and food preferences were observed more in the group of people with semantic dementia than the group of people with Alzheimer’s disease (Ikeda et al., 2002). On the other hand, the developmental pattern in the group with semantic dementia was very clear; started from the slight changes in the food preferences, moved to appetite increase, oral behaviors and finally swallowing patterns (Ikeda et al., 2002). However, the pattern was not clear in the group of patients with Alzheimer’s (Ikeda et al., 2002). Furthermore, the Alzheimer’s Society reported that seventy-two percent of the people suffering from dementia could develop hearing problems, heart disease and physical disability (Alzheimer’s Society 2014). These results have been affirmed by a previous report by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in 2006. According to the report, people with dementia are more likely to develop learning disabilities due to mental health problems (NICE, 2006).As per an estimate, more than 520,000 people in the United Kingdom are struggling with this disease whereas 850,000 people are suffering from dementia (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). The study also found that more than 42,000 people under the age of sixty-five years are fighting dementia in the country (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). Apart from these estimates, Alzheimer’s is the most feared disease from the class of dementia as well. According to the latest report of the Alzheimer’s Society, half of the population fears Alzheimer’s whereas approximately sixty-two percent population of the country believes that dementia means that their life is over. Moreover, seventeen-percent of the of people who had dementia was from vascular dementia (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). Furthermore, ten-percent of the population had been diagnosed with mixed dementia where four-percent was diagnosed with Lewy-body dementia (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). However, only two-percent of the population in the United Kingdom suffered from Frontotemporal dementia or Parkinson’s dementia (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). All of the remaining types of dementia were placed in one category, and approximately three-percent of the people were diagnosed within this category (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016).Two years ago, at least one in every fourteen citizens aged sixty-five years and more were affected by dementia (Alzheimer’s Society, 2014). As per the report of Alzheimer’s Society, this ratio equates to more than seven percent of the country’s population (Alzheimer’s Society, 2014). Moreover, the symptoms of dementia are not only diagnosed in the people above the age of sixty-five years but also in young people. As per a report, in 2013, there were approximately 40,000 people under that age living their everyday lives with dementia in the United Kingdom (Alzheimer’s Society, 2014).The United Kingdom has a prolonged history of dementia along with an ethnic society. The statistics in this regard have been reported over the years. For instance, according to the report of dementia carried by Alzheimer’s Society in 2012, not less than twenty-five thousand people who have dementia in 2011 were from the ethnic background; it included minorities in the form of black and Asian communities lives in England and Wales (Alzheimer’s Society, 2012). However, by 2026, the number is expected to be increased by double, i.e., up to fifty-thousand and by the year of 2051, the number will increase up to approximately one-hundred and seventy-two thousand people; these statistics are related to the communities of minorities in the United Kingdom only. Thus, these statistics show that the number of ethnic people who have dementia in the country will increase by seven-fold in less than forty years. The result is devastating because this statistic indicates an increase by a double amount in ethnic people as compared to the people not belonging to minorities of the country.Such results are an alarming sign for the All Party Parliamentary Group on dementia; they must find out the reasons behind such a rapid progression of the diseases among minorities in this region. From the literature, it has been found that the Asian and African ethnicities of the country are less likely to seek support when diagnosed with dementia (Mackenzie, 2006). Moreover, most of them are not likely to receive a diagnosis at the first place. The most prominent reason in this regard is the poverty. Therefore, dementia has a double-fold effect among the ethnic communities of the United Kingdom. Firstly, they are unable to receive diagnosis due to poverty, and if they receive a diagnosis, they are unlikely to address the disease due to lack of resources. Thus, they are unable to tackle the disease due to poverty. Secondly, if they are diagnosed with dementia, the cost of bearing the consequences of the illness is likely to affect the economy of the country. Thus, dementia gives rise to poverty in the United Kingdom as well.In addition to the fact that dementia is a dangerous disease which has the capability of making lives difficult without any prominent physical impairment, it is costly as well. According to the latest report of the Alzheimer’s Society, dementia is one amongst the biggest causes of leading the UK economy into crisis (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). As per the estimate, it currently costs more than seventeen billion Euros a year to the economy (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). This figure is likely to increase up to fifty billion Euros in a few coming years (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). In 2014, Beam and Davidson conducted a study. They found a figure of 0.61 percent for each penny in the context of dementia between 2013 and 2014. The figure was estimated by analyzing more than three-thousand cases in Great Britain in that particular period (Beam & Davidson, 2014). The study also found that in any case, when the figures were specificity isolated down to each geographic official, the North of Britain had the most noteworthy measurement of 0.68 for each penny of individuals who were determined to have dementia between the times of 2013 to 2014 (Beam & Davidson, 2014). On the other hand, the south of Britain was the second most noteworthy with the figure of 0.67 for each penny and a normal figure of 0.62 for every penny in the Midlands and East of Britain (Beam & Davidson, 2014). Nevertheless, London had the least figure of 0.39 for each penny of individuals determined to have dementia (Beam and Davidson, 2014).The official reports from the forums of Alzheimer’s Research UK, British Association of Social Workers, Alzheimer’s Society and Alzheimer Europe. The official reports of Alzheimer’s Society have also been used for referring to statistics in this report in the context of dementia in the United Kingdom. They have also been used to explain and elaborate the details regarding the deadly disease, i.e., dementia. From these reports, it has been found that this disease affects people’s ability in various ways including the mental capacity of an individual (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). It was also found that dementia also aggravates the signs of depression and aggressive behaviors (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). From these reports, it has also been found the project is ambitious about publishing a code of practice to achieve its goals and objectives in an organized manner (Alzheimer Europe, 2014). It has been found that the program was able to achieve certain goals including the launch of the national recognition process, Dementia friendly financial services charter, and several Dementia Friends campaigns (Alzheimer Europe, 2014).It has also been found that twenty-five thousand people who have dementia in 2011 were from the ethnic background; it included minorities in the form of black and Asian communities lives in England and Wales (Alzheimer’s Society, 2012). It has also been found that by 2026, the number is expected to be increased by double, i.e., up to fifty-thousand and by the year of 2051, the number will increase up to approximately one-hundred and seventy-two thousand people (Social Care Institute for Excellence).From the paper of Beam & Davidson, it was found that the North of Britain had the most noteworthy measurement of 0.68 for each penny of individuals who were determined to have dementia between the times of 2013 to 2014 (Beam & Davidson, 2014). On the other hand, the south of Britain was the second most noteworthy with the figure of 0.67 for each penny and a normal figure of 0.62 for every penny in the Midlands and East of Britain (Beam & Davidson, 2014). Nevertheless, London had the least figure of 0.39 for each penny of individuals determined to have dementia (Beam and Davidson, 2014).Thematic Discussion (1500 words)The thematic approach has been adopted for the purpose of preparing this report on the implications of the Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020 in the country (Gov.UK Policy Paper, 2015).The Definition: First of all, the disease is defined and explained along with its symptoms and possible causes. Online data resources such as official reports, journal articles, and research papers have been used in this regard. The most comprehensive definition of the disease has been found from the website of the World Health Organization. According to the website, dementia is a syndrome which is caused by chronic or progressive nature. It weakens the cognitive function within a person. Moreover, there are a range of diseases, injuries, and factors that can affect the brain by the loss of memory and think difficulties (WHO, 2017).The Symptoms: To find statistics on the finding that Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia in the world and the United Kingdom, the reports of Alzheimer’s Society have been used. It is the leading dementia support and research charity of the United Kingdom (Alzheimer’s Society official website). It covers the population suffering from dementia in the England, Wales and Northern Ireland (Alzheimer’s Society official website). The charity has progressively been producing reports on the status of dementia in the country (Alzheimer’s Society official website). The reports from the same source have also been used to explain and explore the symptoms of the deadly disease among the population of the country. According to the 2016 report of the Alzheimer’s Society, dementia affects the human brain and leads to dementia. It also affects people’s ability in various ways including the mental capacity of an individual (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016; Foley & Swanwick, 2014).The most common effect of dementia is the loss of memory (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). Moreover, it disturbs the ability of a person to reason. It also aggravates the signs of depression and aggressive behaviors (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). Dementia can also affect a person’s ability to communicate effectively. Certain people with dementia can become delusional and begin to experience hallucinations. Some of them also develop eating problems which can lead to weight loss and unnecessary sickness for prolonged periods. It can also affect the mobility of an individual. According to the 2014 report of the charity, the people suffering from dementia can also develop hearing problems, heart disease and physical disability (Alzheimer’s Society, 2014). These results have been affirmed by a previous report by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in 2006. According to the report, people with dementia are more likely to develop learning disabilities due to mental health problems (NICE, 2006).The Involvement of the Ethnic Community: The United Kingdom has a population with ethnic communities. A research study was carried out by Manthorpe and Hettiaratchy in 1993 on the topic of ethnic minority elders in the United Kingdom. It pointed out various lacking and shortcomings in the (then) current literature in the area. First of all, it pointed that old age and ethnicity must properly be defined in order to take better control of the situation as well as the issues concerning with ethnicity such as family structure, geography and gender (Manthorpe & Hettiaratchy, 1993). Secondly, it discussed the interplay of views on medical responses to illness and health and cultural factors in this context, i.e., the influential theory of triple jeopardy (Manthorpe & Hettiaratchy, 1993). The study concluded a general lack of research about ethnic elders and mental health issues from the United Kingdom (Manthorpe & Hettiaratchy, 1993). A more recent case study in this regard was conducted by Regan in 2016. He conducted informal discussions, formal observations and formal interviews to investigate the experiences and motivations of the health workers towards Muslim, Pakistani male with dementia (Regan, 2016). He noted negative experiences of accessing services for the minority as well as prevalence of ill-information on the end of the health services in dealing with people with young onset dementia from an ethnic community (Regan, 2016). He also suggested education and training in order to improve the work-related shortcomings in this field (Regan, 2016).Moreover, these minorities are at high risk of suffering from one or another form of dementia. To support this argument, the official report of 2012 of the Alzheimer’s Society has been used. According to the report, twenty-five thousand people suffering from dementia in 2011 were from the ethnic background; it included minorities in the form of black and Asian communities lives in England and Wales (Alzheimer’s Society, 2012). It has also been found that by 2026, the number is expected to be increased by double, i.e., up to fifty-thousand and by the year of 2051, the number will increase up to approximately one-hundred and seventy-two thousand people (Social Care Institute for Excellence). Thus, these statistics show that the number of ethnic people suffering from dementia in the country will increase by seven-fold in less than forty years. The result is devastating because this statistic indicates an increase by a double amount in ethnic people as compared to the people not belonging to minorities of the country.The Economic Impact: Journal articles and research papers have been used to explore the extent of the economic impact of the deadly disease dementia on the people of the United Kingdom. From the literature, it has been found that the Asian and African ethnicities of the country are less likely to seek support when diagnosed with dementia (Mackenzie, 2006). Moreover, most of them are not likely to receive a diagnosis at the first place. Dementia has a double-fold effect among the ethnic communities of the United Kingdom (Prince et al., 2014). Firstly, they are unable to receive diagnosis due to poverty, and if they receive a diagnosis, they are unlikely to address the disease due to lack of resources. Thus, they are unable to tackle the disease due to poverty. Secondly, if they are diagnosed with dementia, the cost of bearing the consequences of the illness is likely to affect the economy of the country. Thus, dementia gives rise to poverty in the United Kingdom as well. Overall, dementia puts a heavy cost on the economy of the United Kingdom (Prince et al., 2014). It has been found that as per an estimate, it currently costs more than seventeen billion Euros a year to the economy (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016). This figure is likely to increase up to fifty billion Euros in a few coming years (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016).The Implications of the Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020: The Prime Minister’s Challenge on Dementia 2020 is focused on making the country a dementia-free society. Marked with the goals of equipping the citizens with the control over their lives concerning the context of dementia. This governmental program to combating dementia is aimed at creating a society by 2020 where all people who have dementia along with their families and carers will be provided with the high quality, compassionate care from diagnosis till the end. Most importantly, this care must be given without any discrimination on the grounds of ages, gender, sexual orientation, ability, and ethnicity. The aspirations of the government from this program include improve public awareness and understanding of the symptom of dementia, providing equal access to diagnosis to all people without discrimination, playing a lead role in ensuring continuity and coordination of care for patients of dementia, providing meaningful care to the patients following the diagnosis and making all hospitals and medical care facilities to provide the best care possible.In 2013, a progress report on the implications of the Prime Minister’s challenge on dementia 2020 was published by Alzheimer’s Research UK. It provided an opportunity to look back at the developments under this project in the context of dementia in the United Kingdom (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2013). The report found out that the government has committed to double fund the project (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2013). The project has invested a handsome amount of money in several projects of clinical and applied health research through the National Institute for Health Research (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2013). Moreover, the Medical Research Council has also invested in the program for evaluating the use of existing drugs to see their effect on dealing with dementia in the United Kingdom (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2013).In the second year of its implementation, the program was able to achieve certain goals (Alzheimer Europe, 2014). Firstly, it launched the national recognition process to test the progress of dementia friendly communities as well as Dementia friendly financial services charter (Alzheimer Europe, 2014). Secondly, it launched several Dementia Friends campaigns; it included over 280,000 new dementia friends. It also published evidence about dementia friendly communities (Alzheimer Europe, 2014). Moreover, the project has also raised its level of ambitions in several contexts such as an increase ambition to have seventy-five communities sign the dementia friendly campaigns (Alzheimer Europe, 2014). It also announced dementia friendly awards to raise awareness and motivation among the communities. Most importantly, it is ambitious about publishing a code of practice to achieve its goals and objectives in an organized manner (Alzheimer Europe, 2014).Another report from Alzheimer’s Research UK (2016) provided with the information that the European Union has been exhibiting a positive response towards UK science (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2016). The organization has also been providing funds for the projects in this regard as well. Seeing the progress of the Prime Minister’s step towards combating the deadly disease of dementia, a bright future can be predicted concerning dementia in the country (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2016). However, it must be made sure that the project does not fall from the agenda (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2016). Most importantly, the report suggested that despite having approximately 850,000 people suffering from the devastating condition in the country, the project must not take its foot off the accelerator (Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2016).In 2016, another report was published by the British Association of Social Workers. This report provided a detailed overview of the plan (British Association of Social Workers, 2016). According to this report, the country is already seeing the fruits of its determination towards combating the deadly disease (British Association of Social Workers, 2016). It further explains that by 2020, the project will provide a useful framing point for the country for developing fully integrated, high-quality dementia health and care services in alignment with the Prime Minister’s Challenge 2020 to combat dementia (British Association of Social Workers, 2016).

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