Attention Modulation by Learned Stimuli

Published: 2021-07-06 06:40:01
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IntroductionEvidence indicates that in most cases learning influences whether stimuli distract people from the task that they are trying to do. Knowing that a stimulus indicates the presence of a higher value reward in contrast to a lower value reward is able to increase attention. Knowing that a stimulus will lead to a high-value reward, becomes more outstanding and gets our attention. A study on this can be done using an associative learning undertaking that employs learning about the connection between colors and bonuses as well as ways in which this affects the degree to which the different colors distracts people from the task they are performing.There have been efforts to illustrate and understand value-driven attention and many studies that replicate and extend the value-driven captivation of attention have been accounted for in the past. There is a sequence of five studies Anderson et al. (2013) demonstrated that reward-related attention addictions are not swayed by drug awards only but also with stimuli related to another type of reward. In another review, Anderson (2016) found that reward history affects attention. That is, attention can be driven by value, together with reward history directly influencing selection. Le Pelley et al. (2015) found that reward learning influence involuntary attention and visual oculomotor capture. Chelazzi et al. (2013) found that when a stimulus is highly rewarded, they may lead to a quicker and more accurate performance in the visual search task. In another research, Hickey & van (2013) found that reward experience can prepare the demonstration of task-irrelevant features. ).In the design, a distracter stimulus was used to signal the presence of high rewards though it is not applicable to perform the task. The outcome that leads to people finding bigger interruption or destruction through stimuli that signal the presence of rewards is called value-modulated-attentional capture (VMAC). Using it is an exciting outcome as counterproductive – individuals earn fewer points as compared to if they ignore the reward-related color and are distracted by it.The purpose of the study first is to examine whether having knowledge about stimuli that indicates good value rewards can alternate attention and divert the attention of those participating from the target undertaking. Second is to study if VMAC effect score is correlated to Audit measure score.The attention of the participants was more on the distracter signal with a bonus trial as compared to the distracter signal with non-bonus trials. The score on audit measure correlates to the VMAC effect score. The VMAC effect shows how having knowledge of the connection between rewards and stimuli make the stimuli to get our attention even if we are encouraged to ignore them.MethodologyThe study was a randomized experimental design involving 321 femalesStimuliA black background represented the stimuli. Every trial had a fixation display containing a white cross placed at the centre of the screen. It also served as a search display. A number of six shapes were position equidistantly around an imaginary circle. All shapes were grey in colour apart from the distracter circle that was green, blue, pink or orange. The position of both the target together with the distracter on every trial was determined in a random manner. The feedback displayed the total points earned at the trial.ParticipantsStudents were 427, and 321 were females. The mean age was 19.3years and SD of 1.4years.Demographic survey was based on Gender, age and Handedness. AUDIT test was performed on all the participants to identify any individual who is likely to develop any alcohol disorder related to anyHazardous use of alcohol.MaterialsStandard PC with 23-in. monitor was used and MATLABPsychophysics Toolbox extensionProcedureTwo colors that are either green, blue, orange or pink was assigned in a random manner as bonus colour together with non-bonus colourThe study involved six blocks that contained ma total of 48 trials the number of trials was 268. The trials were presented in a random mannerEvery block had 20 trials and contained a high-value colored circle that represented bonus trials. Low-value colored circle represented non-bonus trial. The baseline trial was represented by all the circles that were colored with grey. The target shape determined how the participants responded as their response was according to the direction of its line segment. Pressing C key meant horizontal while pressing M key meant vertical. Even if the response was correct but the RT is slower than 1000ms, no points were gained. Correct responses were equivalent to a single point for each m that is for RT that is below 1000ms.bonus trials with ten times errors led to losing an equal amount of points. Performance medal was earned by receiving 10000 points. Bronze and elite were among the medals that could possibly be unlocked.Bonus trials with ten times Errors led to losing the corresponding number of points.10,000 points received was equal to performance medal. Six possible medals were ranging from Bronze to Elite.Main Taskstudents were Instructed and could receive points for both fast and correct reply that led to increased points and thus unlocking more models. Just 10% of participants reached the elite medal position. The connection between colors and rewards was communicated to the participants. Before starting the task, the participants answered some questions to confirm whether the instructions had been well understood and their ability to report the reward contingency colour. Participants were informed of the number of points they had earned after every block to inform them of the number of points they had gained and medals that were unlock at every stage of the task. Before the students begun the task they had to answer questions to confirm the instructions were well understood and participants were able to report the colour of the reward contingencies.After every block, they were told the amount of points they had earned so far in the task and number of medals they had unlocked. AUDIT questionnaire were also administered.Data analysis.The data that was analyzed was only from the major experiment. That is, the first six blocks that was used after the practice phase. The trials that had incorrect responses were disposed. The mean of RT on correct trials of every student was computed to establish if the display had a distracter with a high value or low value. Proof of VMAC was inspected by comparing the means of participants through a paired sample of t-test. The VMAC count or score of every student was calculated by subtracting the RTs of distracter trials with low value from RTs on distracter trials with high values in big VMZC scores high value tries responded slowly compared to trials on low-value. It was determined whether there was a correlation between VMAC and the sum of all items.ReferencesAnderson, B. A. (2016). The attention habit: how reward learning shapes attentional selection. Annals of the new York Academy of Sciences, 1369(1), 24-39.Anderson, B. A., Faulkner, M. L., Rilee, J. J., Yantis, S., & Marvel, C. L. (2013). Attentional bias for nondrug reward is magnified in addiction. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology, 21(6), 499.Bucker, B., Belopolsky, A. V., & Theeuwes, J. (2015). Distractors that signal reward attract the eyes. Visual Cognition, 23(1-2), 1-24.Chelazzi, L., Perlato, A., Santandrea, E., & Della Libera, C. (2013). Rewards teach visual selective attention. Vision research, 85, 58-72.Hickey, C., & van Zoest, W. (2013). Reward-associated stimuli capture the eyes in spite of strategic attentional set. Vision Research, 92, 67-74.Hickey, C., & van Zoest, W. (2013). Reward-associated stimuli capture the eyes in spite of strategic attentional set. Vision Research, 92, 67-74.Le Pelley, M. E., Pearson, D., Griffiths, O., & Beesley, T. (2015). When goals conflict with values: Counterproductive attentional and oculomotor capture by reward-related stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 158.Mine, C., & Saiki, J. (2015). Task-irrelevant stimulus-reward association induces value-driven attentional capture. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77(6), 1896-1907.

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