Cardiovascular Disease Essay

Published: 2021-07-07 00:10:23
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IntroductionAmerica has recorded a significant number of deaths that have been caused by heart conditions. One of these diseases is the coronary heart disease which is majorly caused by the narrowing of the arteries from a built up plague, and this limits the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. The general term used to describe the conditions that affect the blood vessels or the heart is cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease, commonly identified as CVD, is one of the leading causes of non-communicable deaths across the globe. In most cases, CVD is associated with the build-up of plague/fatty deposits inside the arteries (known as atherosclerosis) or the increase of blood clots. According to World Health Organization, the number of deaths as a result of CVD is bound to increase by 2030 to nearly twenty million if people don’t change their lifestyle. Some of the diseases encompassed in cardiovascular disease include stroke, cardiomyopathies, coronary heart disease, hypertension and heart failure. According to physicians, obesity and sedentary behavior are the principal causes of CVD.Causes of CVDThere is no particular cause of cardiovascular disease, but there are numerous things that increase the risks of a person acquiring the disease. Physicians identify these risks as risk factors and the more they are, the greater the chances of an individual developing (Arnett et al) Cardiovascular disease. In most cases, doctors and health practitioners advise people who are over forty years to have an NHS Health check after every five years to assess a person’s CVD risks and help I reducing these risks. Some of the primary risk factors that attribute to CVD include:Smoking: -the harmful substance found in tobacco, nicotine, is responsible for narrowing and damaging one’s blood vessels leading to cardiovascular disease.High blood pressure (hypertension): -this is one of the most crucial risk factors with regards to CVD. This is because an individual whose blood pressure is high means their blood vessels are at a danger of getting damaged quickly and faster.Diabetes: -Diabetes is a lifelong condition that results in a person’s blood sugar level to be high. High blood sugar levels are known for narrowing the blood vessels thus damaging the blood vessels. In most instances, individual who suffer from type 2 diabetes are known to be obese and overweight which is also a factor for CVD.High cholesterol: -the fatty substance that is found in a person blood is identified as cholesterol. High cholesterol means a person’s blood vessels will be narrowed which might result in the development of blood clotting.Signs and SymptomsOne of the common symptoms of the cardiovascular disease is described by many as a crushing pain and heaviness in the center of the chest and a radiation of pain to one’s jaws or arms especially the left arm. Also, a person might experience a shortness of breath and a lot of sweating and nausea. These symptoms are not compulsory to every individual as people are different and they bodies vary. Some might have back pain, indigestion, upper abdominal pain or even nausea. According to Binno, these signs and symptoms can be marked differently in various groups of people. For instance, women who are elderly or have diabetes are always seen to complain of overwhelming fatigue or record a change when performing their daily routine such as walking. In most cases, these symptoms of CVD always become worse as time goes by as the arteries continue narrowing and the blood flow becomes limited. One of the first signs and symptoms of CVD has always been a heart attack (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).How CVD is diagnosed.The first phase of diagnosing cardiovascular disease is by taking the patients history by the health care professional. The professional must also view the patient’s symptoms and understands them as well. It’s also important for the health practitioner to consider the circumstances that surround the symptoms as this is crucial such as if the symptoms wake the patient. The next phase would be to assess the risk factors of the CVD such as high blood pressure. Other physicians might decide to take a physical examination, which is not compulsory, to help identify other hidden medical problems that might be causing the patient’s symptoms. The next step would be testing the hearts anatomy. Some of the tests that might be taken include stress tests, nuclear imaging, Cardiac catheterization, Electrocardiogram among others.Body parts affected by CVDThe heart plays a crucial role in a human body which is to pump blood that is rich in nutrients and oxygen to the other part of the body while the circulatory system supplies the blood. Once the heart is affected by CVD, the entire body is bound to suffer the consequences as this means the body will not be functioning in a normal pace. One of the body parts that is affected is the brain. Due to arterioscleroses, the blood is unable to reach the brain at a faster rate as it’s supposed to and this might result in a stroke. The kidneys are also affected if the blood vessels are blocked in the kidneys, and this can lead to renal failure or hypertension. The legs and arms are also affected if the arteries are blocked, and this might lead to peripheral vascular disease which hinders immobility. If not treated early, it can lead to gangrene, disability or ulceration.Prevalence of Cardiovascular DiseaseHeart disease is a common cause of death for both men and women across the globe. However, certain factors attribute to these diseases (Bamberg). For instance, people above Forty years are more likely to acquire a heart disease compared to an eighteen-year-old person. Also, an individual living in a developed city is at a higher risk of acquiring CVD compared to a person living in rural areas due to the lifestyle. Men are at greater risk of acquiring CVD due to their lifestyle such as high alcohol assumption, eating food with cholesterol and smoking a lot compared to women.TreatmentYes, CVD can be treated depending on the condition o hand. For instance, if a patient has a heart infection, he/she is likely to be given antibiotics. CVD treatment usually includes:Medications: – doctor prescribe medicine once lifestyle change doesn’t work depending on the type of CVDLifestyle change: -include moderate exercise, eating low-fat foods among others to reduce risk factorsMedical surgery/procedure: -if medications don’t work and CVD worsens, surgery will be the last result depending on the damage done to the heart.Is CVD hereditary?Yes. This is because family members share lifestyles, genes, and even behaviors. Among the factors that bring about CVD, hereditarily is among them (Bastien, 369-381). For an individual whose both parents have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, the person is at a risk of acquiring CVD. A person can inherit risk factors depending on their family history, and the only way to prevent one from acquiring CVD is by taking measures that reduce these risk factors.Preventing CVDOne of the ways of reducing the risk of CVD is by living a healthy lifestyle. In cases when an individual already has CVD, staying healthy will play a role in reducing chances of the disease worsening. Some other ways of reducing the risks of CVD include:Eating a balanced dietStop smokingUndertaking exercise classesMaintaining a healthy weightMedicationCutting down alcohol consumptionIs CVD a Terminal Illness?Terminal illness includes diseases that are incurable and cannot be treated and the only thing left is death which is expected after a short period. For the case of CVD, it becomes a terminal illness if it is not attended to at the right time. This means that once the Cardiovascular disease advances, it becomes a terminal disease and the only solution is death.ConclusionFrom the discussion above, it’s true to say that Cardiovascular disease is an issue affecting the entire globe. Many people die due to lack of knowledge and understanding of what is happening to their body anatomy. If cardiovascular disease is to be prevented, people, need to be educated and understand what certain symptoms mean or how to prevent these heart diseases. If the globe was well educated, then the percentage dying from CVD would defiantly decrease.WORK CITEDArnett, D. K., et al. “AHA/ACC/HHS Strategies to Enhance Application of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and Comorbid Conditions.” Circulation 130.18 (2014): 1662-1667.Bamberg, F., et al. “Meta-analysis and systematic review of the long-term predictive value of assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by contrast-enhanced coronary computed tomography angiography.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology57.24 (2011): 2426-2436.Bastien, Marjorie, et al. “Overview of epidemiology and contribution of obesity to cardiovascular disease.” Progress in cardiovascular diseases 56.4 (2014): 369-381Binno, Simone. “2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.” (2016).Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms.” Updated: Aug 05. 2015.

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