Career Counseling and Krumboldtz’s Learning Theory

Published: 2021-07-07 00:17:32
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Career counseling is similar to clinical and marriage counseling options that one knows already. All professional counseling forms are united in the sense that it the client that is given support, and helped to tackle difficult situations and complex decisions. Out of the many practice types of career counseling, Krumboldtz’s learning theory of career counseling is chosen (Mitchell, 1996). The learning theory of career counseling has many positives, for example, the learning process takes place via direct observations and through direct observations (Krumboltz, Mitchell, & Jones, 1976). Moreover, the theoretical process, when applied, allows simplification of the process of career selection. Primarily, life events are used to determine career selection.There are many factors of career development that are taken into account with the learning theory (Mitchell, 1996). Any special abilities and genetic endowments are assessed as part of the process; the includes inherited qualities and any other limit setting factors that may be seen as important while setting individual career opportunities. The second factor includes any environmental events and conditions; this can also include factors that are known to influence the individual beyond anyone’s control. Moreover, events can also shape one’s skill development, and performances (Krumboltz et al., 1976). The third factor relates to the importance of learning experiences; there may be individual or associative learning experiences, in addition to a positive and negative reaction to neutral situations (Krumboltz & Worthington, 1999). The theory looks at many other skills that the individual has developed that include work habits, problem-solving abilities, and cognitive-emotional skills.Essentially, the person’s learning experiences during the lifetime allows the professional to suggest a career choice; this is seen from generalization of experiences and performances. Moreover, environmental coping abilities are also an important aspect. The theory is one of the many theories that may be applied, but, I chose this because it depends on learning, and not developmental patterns entirely (Mitchell, 1996). Career development depends mainly on associate, instrumental, and vicarious factors. Instrumental factors act within the environment and have consequences. Then, associative factors have cognitive and emotional connections. In the end, there are vicarious factors that looks at a type of associative learning (Krumboltz et al., 1976).Keeping in mind these factors that are common in the learning theory, any counselor, can help in facilitating to learn new things. Moreover, it will allow the visitors to create a highly satisfied life within the constantly changing environment that one lives in. The most important aspect is that it promotes learning (Mitchell, 1996). The application of this learning theory will help clients’ identity new aptitudes, develop new interests, and also encourage a growth in personality (Krumboltz & Worthington, 1999). The professional will be fully confident because he/she would have helped stimulate new learning. The theory fully encapsulates the changing work environment as well, and looks at the progress that the client is making to ensure a satisfying life (Krumboltz et al., 1976).The theory has many implications and is preferred to others because if empowers people to take an action as mere diagnosis is not sufficient. People ought to prepare for the ever changing tasks, while also looking to expand interests and capabilities. These are some of the most important and influential goals that a career counseling professional can underline.The Role of Krumboldtz’s Learning Theory for One-SelfKrumboldtz’s Learning Theory was previously described as one that essentially is the best fit counseling theory in most cases. One of the most important behavioral strategies that are expected from the counselor include reinforcement; this is the most imperative technique that can be used in different phases of career counseling. One will look at aspects of positive reinforcement in terms of verbal communication as well (Mitchell, 1996). Also, counselors are expected to become role models and value associative learning experiences. Mostly, counselors are role models for the client or they can choose to select a role model other than themselves. Other aspects of career counseling can include giving the client a role playing activity and some form of simulation to further help the client (Krumboltz, 2015).The learning theory allowed me to check all the boxes that were associated with my learning experiences more than my developmental outcomes. Being raise up in an environment where physical activities and careers were valued more than other aspects in my life, it was expected that I was to join a similar path. I took many career tests growing up, and they mostly classified me as either the brainy one or one who were to become a creative type, such a writer or such professional roles. I never found becoming a neuroscientist or a writer as oddly satisfying though (Krumboltz et al., 1976). It was under such circumstances that I started to become more aware that I did not know what my future held for me. I identified early on that I was adept at helping my peers in determining their goals in life; such events gave me satisfaction (Krumboltz, 1994). Moreover, the world we live in has over half the population unhappy with their careers and jobs (Krumboltz, 2015). It was via learning experiences that I identified that career counseling can help change the world. This is one type of counseling that looks to help people and make the best out of life.Moreover, career counseling’s first ever book was written in 1909 (Shark, 2016). The early 20th century had many different applications as well (Krumboltz, 1994). The learning theory’s application allows me to identify that thinking outside the box is a good thing out of all. Clients will, more often than not, be trapped when they choose their career path. In most cases, a career counselor will help them choose a career that they would have otherwise not chosen (Krumboltz, 2015). An example can be seen when a counselor took a client to a field trip to choose a career and jot down ideas. The client was highly passionate about mountaineering but did not know whether that passion would be translated into a career path. Upon visiting the parking in the vicinity, the client was able to pick out brochures about mountaineering training programs.Krumboldtz’s Learning Theory in the workplaceAs a counselor operating within a workplace, it is important that the theory is applied positively under social conditions. There are many environmental and social conditions that are important in the client’s life (Gould & Taylor, 2017). As such, the professional’s role is to point out the positive in one discipline over others and help the clients to avail any change that they have under the many circumstances that they face (Lyseng et al., 2016). As the counselor, it is important that the clients are given incentives to explore learning opportunities. They need to be given persistence values when dealing with obstacles. Moreover, they need to be given flexibility when addressing different events and circumstances. Optimism can also maximize the benefits that can come from unplanned events (Gould & Taylor, 2017). The learning theory and its application can be highlighted as imperative in career management professional settings as they help develop commitment when looking at skill and learning development (Lyseng et al., 2016). There is an establishment of self-assessment as well, along with feedback and assessment from the clinical too. The professional can help develop a work life balance for the client and also look at the financial expectations that the client has (Paulsen, 2016). Social learning theories are highly important in any workplace, let alone career counselors. There are principles within the learning theory that allows the workplace professionals to encourage positive practices and ensure that role playing or positive reinforcement activities can help bring about positive results. Professionals can help take advantage of these predispositions by applying most of the aspects of the learning theory.Assessment Tests in Professional Practice-Advantages and DisadvantagesIn choosing an occupation one is, in effect, choosing a means of implementing a self-concept. Many assessment procedures are used in career counseling today; most of these testing methods have roots in personnel hiring in the olden days and the various diagnostic screening methods that existed. As a result, one can identify the relevance that testing has seen with the passage of time (Tananchai, 2017). In essence, there is nothing wrong with assessing people as it one of the core aspects of human nature to weigh out the positives and negatives of one choice to another. In most cases, one needs to realize that choosing a major is a highly intricate decision. As such, professional practices and counselors will use assessment tools that will allow clients to select the most suitable majors. In most cases, test results will allow clients to narrow down viable options (Hancock, 2016).Two assessment tools that I will incorporate into my career counseling practice include: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and Strong Interest Inventory (SII). MBTI assesses and evaluates personality strengths and preferences; it is a computer based test (Tananchai, 2017). SII looks to expand the dislikes and likes in leisure and work areas; this is also a computer based test. Using the MBTI or SII is highly beneficial for the client as only qualified career development professionals, or psychologists, or other professionals in the mental health departments can administer such instrumentations (Hancock, 2016). The MBTI allows a professional to identify preferences of the client and identify the closest personality that the individual has among the 16 different personality types that Myers Briggs introduced. One of the best reasons to choose MBTI over many other instruments that are available is because it is both reliable and valid. It supports studies that have been carried out for over 40 years (Hancock, 2016). The MBTI measures accurate factors, hence the validity is seen; it is also reliable as it will give the same results when carried out again with the same input. It is essentially the most accurate profile that one can obtain with a specific personality type (Furnham, 2017).There are many advantages and disadvantages of incorporating the MBTI test ((Furnham, 2017)). The test is invaluable and helps one understand oneself better. It allows to given oneself an insight about the various personality types, and helps people learnt that every brain works differently (Furnham, 2017). The obvious disadvantages include the fact that people tend to typecast themselves. While MBTI is an advantageous tool, it is not the final personality or career test that an individual will take. The MBTI test does allow people to discover the various facets of life goals (Hancock, 2016), but one ought to make sure that the test results do not dictate boundaries and that the particular individual always strives for the best.Multiculturalism in Career CounselingMulticulturalism deserves a special place in career counseling as it is known to be the fourth force in psychology (Flores & Heppner, 2002). The movement is seen in counseling as it seems to have a great influence on the field of psychology and counseling as a whole (Ponterotto et al., 2009). In my practice, there will be special relevance to the different social, political, and economical influences that exist. Moreover, socioeconomic, gender discrimination, and socioeconomic statuses need to be disregarded in any professional setting. Previously, I gave special relevance to role modelling and how all young clients will be assigned one specific role model. All these aspects will be completed keeping in mind one of the most primary- Lent, Hackett, and Brown’s (1994) social cognitive career theory and implications (Flores & Heppner, 2002).Essentially, it is important that my establishment makes apt use of conceptual frameworks, as that will help in understanding clients and all their educational and career concerns. It is only through identity development models that one can understand the internalized profess that a person deals with in a referent group (Arthur & McMahon, 2005). There are many racial identity models that are used selectively for the whites and other racial and cultural groups. I understand the high value that understanding one’s racial identity has on career counselors and the results that these factors have on the entire process. In case an Asian American client walks in for career counseling due to a job related stress, there will be a different method to deal with the client’s perception of the community around him/her (Ponterotto et al., 2009). A multicultural approach will help to influence the client’s attitudes in his or her own referent group.The client may face additional problems due to the unwarranted discrimination that is common in his/her workplace (Arthur & McMahon, 2005). Essentially, the process refers to acculturation and how individuals from different ethnic and racial groups adapt to one dominant culture (Flores & Heppner, 2002). As part of the practice, one needs to ensure that individuals are given due credit and awareness of the struggles that they have had to face in new cultures, educational systems, and work environments (Ponterotto et al., 2009). Different patterns of interaction and communications exist. A primarily application of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) is visible and can be noted in its application to counseling practices. More often than not, career interests relate to the goals and actions that relate to career performances and attainments. An acknowledgement of the various ethnic and racial changes of society is necessary. For any career counseling practice to work efficiently, there needs to be an expanding approach to training and counseling (Arthur & McMahon, 2005). It is only by increasing one’s knowledge about skills and world practices that different ethnic and racial groups will become an effective part of society.State Laws and Ethic CodesProfessional counselors have a huge responsivity to maintain public trust. As such, they are under obligation to ensure that all testing methods, supervision, and other ethical applications are in line with the state requirements. There is little oversight as counselors practice. Ethical standards relate to the behavior of specific groups of professionals. Ethical requirements by ACA include autonomy, that is independent decision making (Herlihy & Corey, 2014). Justice is also included as part of ethical requirements, and include the fair treatment of the client. Beneficence also relates to doing what is in the best interests of the client. Fidelity also include loyalty and faithfulness (Herlihy & Corey, 2014). All counselors are also responsible for non-maleficence, that is not doing any harm to others. The NCDA code of ethics also dictates the how’s of practice standards (NCDA, 2015). There are general, measurement-evaluation standards, and processes that any private practice needs to follow. In my practice, as mentioned above, there needs to be a multicultural approach to guiding individuals. In cases of career counseling and development, people from all backgrounds are to be included.Moreover, I will also ensure that different policy statements are included for career development; that is, K-6, 7-12, and adults will have different basic predispositions (NCDA, 2015). Moreover, different methods will be incorporated during group and individual counseling skills. The client will be made aware of false assumptions if he or she is from a different cultural background. The practice will also regularly update technological resources that looks at evaluating information and resources while tending to the diverse population set. The NCDA also highlights how important updating knowledge about multicultural and diversity truly is. My clinical practice will look at incorporating all legal values and professional frameworks. Also, professional and supervision consultations will also be included as part of incorporating legal and ethical values in the workplace.  Every student and client deserves high quality services within the scope of my practice.To summarize, a few of the most important aspects that one can identify in NCDA is a professional relationship, and its establishment with the client (NCDA, 2015). Confidentiality issues are also important, and professional responsibilities are part of the ethical purpose.Career Counseling people with Disabilities Millions of people in the United States are known to have disabilities. As such, it is important that the career counseling practice is trained well enough to benefit people with physical or mental impairments. I plan to bring the best possible outcome for all people with learning disabilities (Foley‐Nicpon & Assouline, 2015). In case the client has a disability in reading, writing, or abstract reasoning, it is my job to use assessment tools that are all inclusive. Color coded systems and electronic calculators can be added for people who have weak math skills or attention deficits. The counseling process, in itself, will look to reducing the time pressure whenever possible. Moreover, I will make sure to reduce any distractions that exist in offices such as electronic reminders of cellphone voices for my clients to make full use of the time that is appointed (Stone & Dahir, 2015).In case people have autism or lie in that spectrum, there needs to be a subtle acknowledgment of unusual or repetitive behaviors. The practice will pay special attention to social ques when clients are uncomfortable to make eye contact or make repetitive unusual motions. All stress management techniques need to be shared with the client, and the practice will also have role playing and exploration requirements that the client will require to complete during the interviewing and networking process. Many people also tend to have psychiatric disabilities, and these include bipolar disorders, PTSD, anxiety, depression and so forth. These disabilities are likely to be challenging during the practice. The client, if aware of his/her disability, needs to be encouraged that such disabilities are normal, and that there are employers in the corporate world who will hire them (Sharf, 2016). These will be apt usage of positive redirection and enforcement in a liberal manner. In case any client says “I will never be able to get a decent job,” I will inform the client that this might be true, but there has been a great progression since the first meeting that was seen. Clients with special needs will find it difficult to maintain attention span and stress management options, but as the counselor, I will make sure that the client can benefit from the brief sessions that are scheduled.ReferencesArthur, N., & McMahon, M. (2005). Multicultural career counseling: Theoretical applications of the systems theory framework. The Career Development Quarterly, 53(3), 208-222. (Arthur & McMahon, 2005)Flores, L. Y., & Heppner, M. J. (2002). Multicultural career counseling: Ten essentials for training. Journal of Career Development, 28(3), 181-202.Foley‐Nicpon, M., & Assouline, S. G. (2015). Counseling Considerations for the Twice‐Exceptional Client. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93(2), 202-211.Furnham, A. (2017). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). In Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (pp. 1-4). Springer International Publishing.Gould, N., & Taylor, I. (2017). Reflective learning for social work: research, theory and practice. Routledge.Hancock, D. (2016). To test or not to test: Assessing personality traits. Practice Management, 26(5), 23-25.Herlihy, B., & Corey, G. (2014). ACA ethical standards casebook. John Wiley & Sons.Krumboltz, J. D., Mitchell, A. M., & Jones, G. B. (1976). A social learning theory of career selection. The counseling psychologist, 6(1), 71-81.Krumboltz, J. D. (1994). Improving career development theory from a social learning perspective. Convergence in career development theories, 9-31.Krumboltz, J. D., & Worthington, R. L. (1999). The School‐to‐Work transition from a learning theory perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 47(4), 312-325.Krumboltz, J. D. (2015). Practical career counseling applications of the happenstance learning theory. APA handbook of career intervention, 2, 283-292. (Krumboltz, 2015)Lyseng, A. M., Bernes, K. B., Gunn, T. M., & Ross, S. A. (2016). The Importance of Career Education in K–12 Classrooms: A Theoretical Review. Canadian School Counselling Review, 1(1), 11.Mitchell, L. K. (1996). Krumboltz’s learning theory of career choice and counseling. Career choice and development, 3, 233-280.NCDA. (2015). NCDA- Laws and Guidelines . Retrieved from NCDA: https://www.ncda.org/aws/NCDA/pt/sp/guidelinesPaulsen, M. B. (2016). Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 31). J. C. Smart (Ed.). Springer.Ponterotto, J. G., Casas, J. M., Suzuki, L. A., & Alexander, C. M. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of multicultural counseling. Sage publications.Seligman, M., & Darling, R. B. (2017). Ordinary families, special children: A systems approach to childhood disability. Guilford Publications.Sharf, R. S. (2016). Applying career development theory to counseling. Nelson Education.Stone, C., & Dahir, C. A. (2015). The transformed school counselor. Nelson Education.Tananchai, A. (2017). The Personality of Students Studying the Social Etiquette and Personality Development Course by Myers Briggs Type Indicators (MBTI) Theory. AJE, 3(2).

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