Causation Causative Factors & Pathophysiological Development

Published: 2021-07-07 00:06:10
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Category: Psychology

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Introduction One of the most persistent public health disorders in the United States and other western countries for the last few decades is the obesity (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). It is prevailing worldwide and s associated with the concerned medical comorbidities (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). Notably, they include the metabolic syndromes diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis that is mainly due to the excessive secretions of adipokines (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). It is one of the leading contributors in the metabolic dysfunction that on the larger scale involves the glucose and lipids (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). Dysfunctions of the organs include the liver, cardiac, endocrine, pulmonary, intestine and reproductive functions (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). Therefore the innovative research has explained the causes of obesity and challenged the mission for the complexity of the disorder (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). According to a lot of individuals, the cause of the obesity lies somewhere in the multiple genetic and environmental factors (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). These factors interact and correlate with each other and influence the body weight (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). The topic of genetic and environmental influences on obesity provides a conceptual framework. Research for each related domain appears to undergo the advancement during the past decade (Ball, & Crawford, 2005).So there are two predominant aims of this paper. First is to review the evidence for genetic and social factors that influence the obesity along with the methodologies related to establishing this association (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). The second one is to consider the opportunities for the greater synergy within this domain (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). The paper is to foster the ideas of research that could bridge the environmental and genetic factors to the obesity and the behavior that promote the obesity (Ball, & Crawford, 2005). The potential of postulates for the conceptual framework, their interaction and covariation are proposed (Ball, & Crawford, 2005).Social, environmental and genetic factors contributing to obesity and the related behaviorThis section defines the broad definition of social environment and its impact on the obesity. Specifically, the social environment is encompassed of the immediate physical surroundings, cultural milieus and social relationships that define the group of people and the purpose of their interaction (Faith, & Kral, 2017). Components of the social environment comprise of “race relations, religious institutions and practices, social and economic processes wealth, social inequality, social, human, and health services power relations, government, cultural training, the arts and beliefs of place and community” (Faith, & Kral, 2017). The experience of the social environment could be made at multiple scales that include the “households, kin networks, neighborhoods, towns and cities, and regions.” In addition to the social influences, this part of the study has defined the genetic impacts on the weight gain and its relation to the environmental factors (Faith, & Kral, 2017). 2.1- Macro Environmental Influences“Two macro environmental factors influence the obesity. The first one is the exposure to the toxic environment while the second one is the Socio-Economic Status. Both of these particular factors are of great importance because a reasonable amount of database is has provided the information on these two variables because of their potential relevance for obesity prevention (Faith, & Kral, 2017).”Toxic Environment exposure“Exposure to the toxic environment is related to genotype. That is, individuals with obesity-predisposing genes may be particularly responsive to the effects of such a toxic environment (Faith, & Kral, 2017). In addition, certain individuals may be more likely to seek out or expose themselves to aspects of the toxic environment.”Socioeconomic Status (SES)“SES is associated with an increased risk of weight gain in American individuals. Specifically an inverse association is found from the research between occupational status and weight gain for men and women (Faith, & Kral, 2017). When SES was assessed using education as the indicator, the relationship became less strong (particularly among men).”2.2- Microenvironmental Influences“However, the two microenvironmental factors that affect the obesity are the social facilitation of eating and parental feeding practices. These particular factors are also of great importance because there is also a reasonable database that provides the information on these variables regarding the feeding practices because these factors hold high potential relevance for the prevention of obesity (Faith, & Kral, 2017).” Physical Activity The living style of the modern environment has reduced the need of being physical active among the individuals. The reduced physical activity results in a reduced expenditure of energy that has the negative association with the maintenance of weight gain or loss. Two of the activities related to this section include the non-exercising and the watching TV. Both of them are associated with the status of weight and the activity of thermogenesis (Redinger, 2017).2.4- Genes Associated with Eating BehaviorsAlthough the information about the genes that influence the pattern of diet for most of the individuals is quite short. But there exist a subset of few people whose obesity is resulted from the mutation in just a single gene and are marked as hyperphagic. Since these individuals are relatively rare in the population but some studies have associated or linked the design of specific genes or the regions of the genome within the larger allies. They are rare for sure but present the area of future research (Faith, & Kral, 2017).Conclusion“The following article has highlighted the areas that are having the common goal for the identification of factors that take part in the obesity and weight imbalance in the population. The main distinct areas are about the social or environmental factors, which includes the micro and macroeconomic factors related to eating habits and living styles (Redinger, 2017). And the second one is the genetic factors associated with the obesity. Although both of areas are of unique focus but have the potential to complement each other and to stimulate the further collaborations and the investigations. The path leading to the obesity is complex and variant for most of the individuals and the population. However the additional research about the impact of genetics on the choices of environmental factor made by any person moderates the expression of obesity that is promoted by genes. It gives the advancement to the current state of knowledge and provides the root insights about the treatment and prevention of obesity (Redinger, 2017).”ReferencesBall, K., & Crawford, D. (2005). Socioeconomic status and weight change in adults: a review.Social Science & Medicine, 60(9), 1987-2010.Faith, M., & Kral, T. (2017). Social Environmental and Genetic Influences on Obesity andObesity-Promoting Behaviors: Fostering Research Integration. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.Retrieved 24 May 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19935/Redinger, R. (2017). The Pathophysiology of Obesity and Its Clinical Manifestations. PubMedCentral (PMC).

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