Chapter 4: Data Analysis

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In this chapter, the focus will be on interpreting the collected qualitative data in data collection phase. The problems associated with qualitative data analysis will be focused on. The findings of the research analysis will be discussed in detail.Qualitative research is primarily based on collection and analysis of subjectively rich data that consists of in-depth information that is normally presented in the form of reports and thesis. The analysis of qualitative data is immensely different compared to qualitative data because it involves reading large amount of transcript data from interviews and focus groups to look for various similarities and differences. After making links and building connections between the collected data, it becomes easier to build themes and develop various conclusions based on these generalizations. The most traditional approach towards qualitative analysis includes colour coding data in different categories and matching it. However, in recent times, due to technological advancements, it has become extremely easier to use specified software packages that are designed to take input in qualitative format and build conclusions and generalizations (Pope et al, 2000). Qualitative research has become extremely popular in the field of medicine and healthcare industry. Healthcare is not just limited to medical procedures anymore but has extended to cover the quality life care services provided to the patients.Without any question, data analysis is one of the most complex part of any research study because the literature does not provide any great insight on this matter. In a healthcare industry, using qualitative analysis strategy serves the purpose of assessing performance. Learning and being able to comprehend verbal pieces of information for finding commonalities and differences between the collected information. It is not just enough to record all the data and state it in a descriptive format. For a successful qualitative research it is highly important to transform the raw information into new form of knowledge and apply analytic process at this data to interpret it and find new meanings out of the given data set. Not only is it a job of a qualitative researcher to find new meanings but it is also crucial to substantiate the findings by relating them to other relevant literature and past findings. The analytical processes need to follow a logical sequence so that the findings make sense and can be generalized or specialized for a particular setting (Sgier, 2012). For this study, content analysis is the analytical process that will be used to generate findings about the impact of physician privileges on the quality of healthcare and life care services provided to the patients. For the successful comprehension and interpretation of the data, it is very important to understand the content analysis technique for analysis.Qualitative DataIt can become very confusing for the readers of the research study to understand how a researcher generated certain findings and connection because often details are not provided.  It is difficult to understand the processes that led to the evolution of findings out of raw data. Another problem that occurs while qualitative research findings are being discussed is that often the authors use language that is difficult for the readers to understand. The qualitative data can be collected in various forms. In qualitative studies related to health care and medical sciences the database of data is usually based on interview transcripts based on open ended questions which are highly focused on a certain subject area but are designed to explore newer connections in the subject area (Moore, 2007). However, the qualitative data collection is not limited to interviews and research shows that the sources for collecting qualitative data are in freezing add an exponential rate. New technologies have allowed for recording of observation in video and audio formats, focus groups are an important source for collecting qualitative data, text and documents in addition to make you your fires and photographs side of as techniques to which qualitative data can be collected for research purposes.Research asked also shows that qualitative research is not just dependent on qualitative data. Qualitative data is a dumb which a difference to anything that is not quantitative and cannot be expressed in numerical form. Some major quantitated studies are also using open ended questions, interviews that are semi structured and observations. The purpose of qualitative research is to judge or subject area from a subjective point of view rather than being objective in terms of numbers and measurements. The purpose of qualitative research is to uncover information that is hidden subjective experiences of people, their social interactions and human experience. The aim of qualitative researcher is to uncover meanings in the thinking pattern of people and their feelings with regard to the circumstances they are part of in daily life (Seers, 2012). The research study that is based on qualitative data relies on the process of either inductive or deductive reasoning process for the purpose of interpretation and structuring findings based on the meanings that can be derived (Drisko, 2013). Deductive approach reasoning is the best approach for this qualitative research because deductive approach starts from an idea and will use the collected data through interviews to either confirm or negate the idea (hypothesis). The deductive approach is basically going to help the researcher in carrying out the hypothesis testing approach. This research study takes help from the theoretical grounds and takes inspiration from existing literature to develop the hypothesis for testing.Analytical Reasoning ProcessResearch shows that a qualitative research takes interpretive approach for finding out conclusions and generalizations. The process and study only becomes successful if the author is able to uncover and deconstruct the meanings from the qualitative data phenomenon. The qualitative research does not focus on how a particular phenomenon operates but rather focuses on the reasons behind the operation of a particular phenomenon. The process of analysing is a concurrent process because it often goes hand in hand with the data collection process (Caudle, 2004). The collected data shapes the analysis techniques and the analysis techniques shape what new data is required to continue with the study. There are various computer tools available in the market which allow the researcher to apply various reasoning techniques to conclude findings and generalizations. These tools provide aid in sorting and categorizing the data but the limitation of such tools is that they are not capable for any intellectual and conceptualising pro cesses which are important in transforming the qualitative data into meaningful findings.Discussion and FindingsThe two organizations that were used for collecting data for the purpose of finding out optimal operations with regard to physician privilege’s relation to quality of life care of patients will be presented in form of codes. The first hospital will be referred to as HOSP1 and the second chosen hospital will be referred to as HOSP2. The first step will be to provide a descriptive analysis of individual hospital which will be followed by a detailed comparative data analysis of both hospitals.In addition to the two hospitals that were initially Jules and for that I collection purposes, a third Institute was also approached for the purpose of collecting data so that the competitive analysis could be stronger. The three hospitals are followingRiyadh Care Hospital, RiyadhRiyadh Central Hospital, RiyadhRiyadh National Hospital, RiyadhWhile the data was being collected it was highly observed that these three hospitals have a very conservative model of policies including policies related to physician privileges and that it does not change quickly according to the external changes in the external environment. These hospitals have created new management techniques which have resulted in a dynamic internal environment and has proven successful in integrating all the areas of the organisation and has little improvement in some areas. Hospital one, hospital to, hospital three have been quite successful in accomplishing their revenue goals and the goals of improvement in various departments of the hospital. The administration is focusing on its effort on providing best medical treatment to all patients so that life expectancy can been increased and quality of life can be improved. Interviews taken from relevant personnel in three organisations letter to the discovery that no hospital management is emphasising planning for policies and in future new policies will be introduced with the aim of increasing the quality of services provided to patients. The respondent clearly stressed upon the need for better planning and use of knowledge so that the hospitals are able to gain more customers and provide quality procedures. The results of the hospitals are improved which would lead to growth in the healthcare industry.The focus of hospital management is on enhancing the functional capabilities of all positions, medical staff and nurses so that their abilities can be further polished and they make fewer mistakes. That respondents stated that certain policies need to be formulated and implemented carefully throughout the healthcare industry So that there can be a positive change in hospitals policy with regard to privileges provided to physicians and ultimately the quality of health care services provided to the patients can be improved. All respondents from different organisations claimed that currently the management is under the command of a qualified nurse who is yet not the part of management level but has done certain courses and has sufficient knowledge which enable them to perform these tasks. The performance of these nurses are quite good with regard to guiding the patients about the procedures and accompanying the patients towards the procedure rooms and give them proper information about their health status.Role of Feedback of PatientsThere was a research question that was related to understanding the feedback of patients regarding the quality of patient care they deceive at these hospitals. The responses of the participants of the interviews help in understanding that after the end of stay at the hospital, all the patients are required to fill out a form of satisfaction. The questions in this form of satisfaction evaluate the perception of patience regarding their experience at the hospital and how well they were treated by the medical staff. When the patients have failed out these farm of satisfaction the completed forms are forwarded to their department responsible for maintaining quality management (Tasa et al, 1996). The personnel in this department are responsible for analysing the answers of the patients. The analysis and evaluation is circled in all the medical staff so that the medical staff can suggest possible improvements. The responses of the interviewees led to the finding that act these hospitals the process of quality management and improvement is continuous and is carried out at a daily basis. The respondents clearly mention that the hospitals seek quality accreditation because they realise that the health system is only effective before the patients if they believe that the hospitals are providing excellent quality life care is given to the patient.Role of Management In Maintaining QualityAnother important issue which was investigated in the research study is related to the influence of the management introducing the inefficiency which is observed in the healthcare services provided by various organisations in the industry. The respondents of the interviews clearly stated that the role of management is very crucial in making sure that all the medical staff provides the absolute best quality services to all the patients. It is the duty of the management level personal to create certain strategies, rules and regulations which make sure that all the medical staff is following a standard procedure and treatment options so that all patients are treated equally and are satisfied with the level of services provided in any healthier Institute. That respondents also stressed that in addition to management control, learning knowledge and training of the medical staff are the driving forces that shape the level of service quality to provide to the patients. Then the medical staff is talented and has this sufficient level of skills, good managerial control can become the foundation for creating a positive change in order to meet all the needs and expectations of the patients (Beer, 2003). The management in this scenario will be able to maintain transparent actions and also encourage learning and education for all medical staff so that continuous improvement can be guaranteed.In the interviews it was discovered that once the physicians in the hospital became a little rebellious because there are more of the part of the general medical staff nor had they any Involvement directly with the organisational structure therefore they did not regard the management as their superior. To make sure that the management dealt effectively with this resistance and rebellious behaviour, the management utilised the concept of responsibility defined by literature.This approach is based on demanding all planning department to encourage decentralisation and use open communication as a tool for shared objectives. The respondent clearly stated that according to them doctor is highly responsible for the life of their patience and need to become an agent of change so that improvement can be brought in the healthcare services that I provided to the patients. The hospitals that were approached for collection of qualitative data are seeking certification so that bacon improve quality and make all procedures better, to ensure that detail explanation is provided to all the participants for each step. The respondents mentioned that the organisations are looking into some incentive programs such as scavenger hunt, lectures and appreciation in order to encourage the effective participation of the hospital staff in building a quality system of providing life care services to the patients.Impact Of External Factors On Privilege PolicyThe respondents were asked about the policies with regard to granting privileges to the physicians and the responses were varied. Few participants of the interviews mentioned that there is a committee consisting of professionals from hospital management who evaluate the performance and knowledge of the physicians and then grant privileges for patient care. The respondents believed that improvement is always welcomed and therefore the process of physician privileges can be optimised in order to increase the quality of the services given at the healthcare Institute. However, some participants were so loyal to their employers that they stated that existing processes in their organisation were correct and did not need any change or evolution (Xue et al, 2008). Research shows that the resistance to change according to the changes in external environment can prove problematic for these organisations in the future because companies who fail to cope with changes in the external environment are often unable to satisfy their customers.The respondents from hospital one faced numerous problems when creating spenders for high quality customer service and patient gear add their organisation because of the external changes especially the cultural, social, technological changes which have altered the needs of the patient immensely. To be with these changes, the management of this hospital made a report with detailed analysis of the Internal and external environment and presented this report to the committee members in order to understand how the privilege of policy can be changed to inculcate the industry standards and the needs of the patients (Tzeng and Yin, 2008). When continuous improvement this hospital was able to obtain level one certification, valid for two years, which assesses the level of quality of life care services given to the patients and the performance of the physician and medical staff in this healthcare institute.Overall AnalysisThe collected data was analysed and the findings were that quality management plays an important role in improving the level of customer services and efficiency of the organisation is viewed by the public. The respondents from all the hospitals tried to stress that their organisation has a quality management Strategy which is presented in every department and the aim of management is to improve patient care as well as the overall efficiency of the healthcare industry. Overall all the respondents emphasised the importance of effective management role because the management is a crucial factor in creating quality culture which promotes commitment from all the medical staff will ensure that superior patient care is delivered to all the patients (Mohammad and Hossein, 2006). The management has the power and a party to motivate all the employees of the hospital to actively participate in formulating quality strategies and then implementing the strategy is as part of the management system throughout the healthcare industry (Lambrou et al, 2010). That aim of new management practices is to create a sustainable practices that reduce the costs and improve quality of life care support given to all patients regardless of demographics.Effects Of AccreditationUpon analysis, it was discovered that the effect of certification is profound on the level of quality in the hospital environment. The major advantage is greater safety for the patients as well as medical professionals, the expansion and introduction of new one techniques and procedures which are less invasive for the patient, better recovery rate of patients and higher satisfaction levels of all the customers. Research study of the answers given by the respondents sure that they believe accreditation presents a better image of the hospital to the patients and a public because the certification shores the procedures of the hospital or more transparent and that that Institute is credible (McAlary, 1981). Such certification provides a surety to the public that the practices of the healthcare industry are up to the mark and they will receive quality life you services if they ever visit the hospital. In conclusion, the analysis of the responses sure that there is a great need to improve the quality of health care services through health promotion.The respondents also mentioned that sometimes the quality of health care is the leases is affected because of the non-cooperation of patience and their attitude. The hospitals have a set criteria for the level of patient care provider to every Bashan but the perception of patients about the services is a highly dependent on their corporation with the medical staff and their ability to listen to the doctors and follow the doctor’s orders. Factors like high turnover of physicians and the lack of physical infrastructure in the hospital have a great deal of relationship between the physicians and a quality care provided to the elderly patients. The respondents stressed upon making comfort table rules for patients of age because placing such patients in an endless queue or in a crowded room can make their conditions worse.ReferencesBeer, M., 2003. Why total quality management programs do not persist: the role of management quality and implications for leading a TQM transformation. Decision Sciences, 34(4), pp.623-642.Caudle, S.L., 2004. Qualitative data analysis. Handbook of practical program evaluation, 2(1), pp.417-438.Drisko, J.W., 2013. Qualitative data analysis software. Qualitative research in social work, 284.Lambrou, P., Kontodimopoulos, N. and Niakas, D., 2010. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital. Human resources for health, 8(1), p.26.McAlary, B., 1981. Hospital accreditation: its implications for midwives. The Australasian nurses journal, 10(5), pp.4-6.Mohammad Mosadegh Rad, A. and Hossein Yarmohammadian, M., 2006. A study of relationship between managers’ leadership style and employees’ job satisfaction. Leadership in Health Services, 19(2), pp.11-28.Moore, N., 2007. (Re) using qualitative data?. Sociological Research Online, 12(3), pp.1-13.Pope, C., Ziebland, S. and Mays, N., 2000. Qualitative research in health care: analysing qualitative data. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 320(7227), p.114.Sgier, L., 2012. Qualitative data analysis. Academic Swiss Caucasus Net.Seers, K., 2012. Qualitative data analysis. Evidence-based nursing, 15(1), pp.2-2.Tasa, K., Baker, G.R. and Murray, M., 1996. Using patient feedback for quality improvement. Quality Management in health care, 4(2), pp.55-67.Tzeng, H.M. and Yin, C.Y., 2008. The extrinsic risk factors for inpatient falls in hospital patient rooms. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 23(3), pp.233-241.Xue, Y., Liang, H. and Boulton, W.R., 2008. Information technology governance in information technology investment decision processes: The impact of investment characteristics, external environment, and internal context. Mis Quarterly, pp.67-96.

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