Construction and Engineering Lab Report

Published: 2021-07-07 00:00:02
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This report analyze the main processes of engineering where we will look application of thermodynamic as well as fluid dynamic principles. Also, we measured all important parameters so that we can assess the trend of the temperature based fluid dynamic test rig. Starting with definition thermodynamics is described as a subject that related with energy and it is used as a tool in understanding physical universe and play significance role in our live. Fluid flow is described as a liquid in motion and it is a significance aspect of many processes which include transporting of objects from one destination to another, combining things and chemical reactions. Also, this paper will demonstrate the investigation that was being done for fluid flow in a pipe network during an experiment which explore several method using (manometer, orifice plate or Venturi meter) in our measurement for the rate of fluid flow. During this experiment we explored the impact of skin friction, pipe network as well as pipe fittings on the pressure.First method is by use of venturi tube that is described as a device that is used to measure rate of fluid flowing on the pipe. When fluid is flowing along the pipe it automatically increase the rate of moving toward the tapering contraction as well as increases velocity along throat of venturi. Then, after that there will be a decrease in pressure which depend on the rate of fluid flow. The rate of flow is basically, inferred as a change in pressure from the measurement taken from the upstream of the throat using piezo meters. The main impact that is associated with the measurement is change in pressure, which can be described as Venturi effect. Furthermore, venturi meter is also used to mix the liquid with gas. When the pump is forcing liquid to move via the tube that is connected with a system that consist a venturi, then it automatically increases the rate of liquid flowing as diameter reduce, and on the other hand venturi decreases speed as the pipe gets wider again.Venturi experimental set-upThe main objectives of the experimentThe key and main objectives of this experiment is to get calibration curve for the Venturi meter, find the effect on pressure starting from inlet to the throat at different rate of flow and finally is to present result using non-dimensional form so that they can be used to access the flow via similar meter.THEORYThis section demonstrate the effect that Venturi has, For an example jet has same structure as air funnel, also it can be described as a thumb on a garden hose. From this theory we normally find that velocity of the fluid in a Venture tube increases when the cross sectional area reduces and at the same time pressure decreases correspondingly. From the laws that govern fluid dynamics, it says that fluid’s velocity will automatically increase when is passing via a constriction in order to achieve the principle of continuity, and at the same time the pressure decrease in order to attain the principle of conservation and of mechanical energy. When there is an increase in kinetic energy the fluid flowing might arise because of an increased in velocity via a constriction and it is negated by decreasing in pressure. The equation of the decrease in pressure that result from Venturi effect might be obtained from both Bernoulli’s principle as well as continuity equation. Venturi effect is limited when the fluid reach a state of choked flow, and this the position where the fluid velocity is getting near to the speed of sound. In addition, in this state, the rate of mass flow won’t increase in conjunction with drop in downstream pressure environment.The flow rate of the mass for a compressible fluid increased due to an increase in upstream pressure and at the same time it automatically increases the density of fluid via a the constriction (via the velocity it always retained constant). An increment in the source temperature it automatically increases the local sonic velocity, and thus it increases the flow rate of the mass. Putting into consideration the flow of an incompressible and also an inviscid fluid via a convergent-divergent Venturi meter and also having both velocity and piezo meter where head is always constant over all of the sections that have been considered, I assumed that when flowing in one-dimensional, both velocity and piezo metric head will only vary in the direction of the tube length. Let now treat the convergent-divergent pipe as a stream-tube and finally apply Bernoulli’s theorem starting section one up to section six.The Continuity equation is given byWhen substituting equation 1 for U1 in equation two givesThis signifies thatFinally, we find that velocity head at the throat of the Venturi tube can conveniently be used in expressing the non-dimensional way by expressing the distribution of piezo metric head along the length of the Venturi meter. Accordingly, the Piezo meter Head Coefficient.ApparatusPoints for the measurement of the static pressure PFanFigure 1: Air tunnel design illustrationOrifice Plate Measurement.Figure 2: Experimental set-upsEXPERIMENTAL PROCEDUREUse a thermometer to record the ambient temperatures of the laboratory together with a pressure obtained from a mobile phone app (or otherwise). Then use a tape measure to measure the circumferences of each of the salient parts, i.e. the throat, inlet and outlet diameters, of the Venturi (Fig. 2b). Connect the device to the electricity plug, set the end-plate flush with the outlet of the air-tunnel. Measure the pressures (Fig. 2a) from inlet {4} and {3}, copy and complete Table 1, with incremental movements to the end plate (Measurements can be taken with a ruler). Repeat the readings for better accuracy and calculate the average for each position of the end plate. Calculate the diameter of the orifice plate (Fig. (2b)) located between points {1} and {2}, from a suitable number of independent measurements of the pressure across these points. (Hint: You will need to use the continuity equation).Room Temperature[oC]Room Pressure[kPa]Room density[kg/m3]Table 1: Lab pressure and TemperatureTest #1Test #2 (Repeat)Test #3 (Repeat)Position[cm]ΔP/[Inches]Position[cm]ΔP/[Inches]Position[cm]ΔP/[Inches]10.50.440.50.410.50.3821.01.721.01.431.01.3431.53.701.53.421.53.1042.05.902.05.102.04.8052.57.612.56.902.56.4063.09.403.08.623.07.8073.510.503.59.803.59.2184.011.284.010.324.09.9094.511.914.510.904.510.20105.012.505.011.455.010.90116.013.226.012.106.011.45127.013.807.012.807.011.78138.014.108.013.008.012.00149.014.309.013.239.012.211510.014.5010.013.7810.012.31AnalysisTemperature = 19.00cLocal air pressure = 997.0 hpaInlet = 13 cm (square) 14 cm (around)Throat = 10.8 cmOutlet = 14 cmThickness = 2 mm.ConclusionFrom all the curve, we find that pressure increases gradually with respect to an increase in distance. Despite having this increment there is also a sudden decrease in pressure. Also, it clear that a rise in pressure is caused by position of the liquid in the tube.ReferencesWhite F. M., Fluid Mechanics, seventh edition, McGraw Hill, 2003.Wain R.A., Whitty J.P., Dalal M.D., Holmes M.C. and Ahmed W., Blood flow through sutured and coupled microvas- cular anastomoses: a comparative computational study, J Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg. Jul;67(7):951-9, 2014.Brown, S., Assessment for Learning, Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, Issue 1, 2005.

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