Global Economy Question Answers

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Question 1Solution: Real GDP tells about the production of the goods and services of a country. It tells that how much a country is producing.  However, to account for the impact of inflation as it affects the good and services of a country nominal GDP is calculated thus, the difference between the real GDP and the nominal GDP is that the nominal GDP is adjusted for inflation.  Thus, the graph also shows that the trend is similar. However, when the inflation premium is added to adjust the real GDP for inflation the number of nominal GDP increases.  It can be seen from the graph that the in 1991 the real GDP witnessed a dip and while in the crisis of 2008 the real GDP also observed the decline and Nominal GDP also observed a recession during this period.Question 2 Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)Country NameAustraliaChinaUnited KingdomJapanKorea, Rep.Indicator NameInflation, consumer prices (annual %)Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)19913.2233.5577.5333.2989.30019920.9866.3544.2621.7076.30619931.81314.6102.5071.2674.74619941.89524.2571.9780.6886.25719954.63816.7892.656-0.1234.48019962.6128.3132.4810.1324.92319970.2502.7871.7781.7614.44719980.853-0.8501.5890.6637.51219991.465-1.3591.335-0.3290.81120004.4750.2570.785-0.6532.26520014.3810.7201.236-0.7404.06620023.003-0.7671.256-0.9232.76320032.7711.1651.363-0.2573.51520042.3443.8891.345-0.0093.59120052.6691.8142.050-0.2832.75420063.5381.4662.3340.2492.24220072.3324.7672.3210.0602.53520084.3535.8433.6131.3804.67420091.820-0.7012.166-1.3532.75720102.8453.3263.286-0.7202.93920113.3045.4114.484-0.2684.02620121.7632.6432.822-0.0522.18720132.4502.6282.5550.3461.30120142.4882.0001.4602.7621.27520151.5081.4370.0500.7900.70720161.2772.0000.642-0.1170.970 Graphical Presentation: (Figure 1)Unemployment, total (% of total labor force)Country NameAustraliaAustraliaChinaChinaUKUKIndicator NameUnemployment, total (% of total labour force) (modelled ILO estimate) Gross capital formation (% of GDP)Unemployment, total (% of total labour force) (modelled ILO estimate) Gross capital formation (% of GDP)Unemployment, total (% of total labour force) (modelled ILO estimate) Gross capital formation (% of GDP)Indicator CodeSL.UEM.TOTL.ZSNE.GDI.TOTL.ZSSL.UEM.TOTL.ZSNE.GDI.TOTL.ZSSL.UEM.TOTL.ZSNE.GDI.TOTL.ZS19919.600024.224.900035.878.600019.59199210.700022.344.400039.849.800018.83199310.900023.594.300044.2410.300018.3819949.700024.254.300040.959.600019.3819958.500025.944.600039.688.700018.6419968.500024.784.600038.378.200018.8419978.400024.804.600036.347.100018.0119987.700025.474.700035.686.200018.6319996.900026.104.700034.966.000018.0620006.300026.284.500034.435.600018.4720016.700023.424.500036.424.700017.8620026.400024.404.400037.085.000017.7620035.900025.934.300040.634.800017.3820045.400027.064.300042.894.600017.0220055.000027.434.100041.394.800017.2220064.800027.664.000040.935.400017.5920074.400027.853.800041.465.300018.1120084.200029.134.400043.275.600016.9920095.600027.914.300046.447.500014.4320105.200027.554.200047.617.800015.6820115.100027.114.300047.698.000015.5620125.200028.334.500047.237.900015.7620135.700028.444.500047.397.500016.3620146.100027.204.600047.016.100017.1120156.100026.744.500045.405.300016.9720165.700025.544.600044.314.800016.96 Country NameJapanJapanKorea, Rep.Korea, Rep.Indicator NameUnemployment, total (% of total labour force) (modelled ILO estimate) Gross capital formation (% of GDP)Unemployment, total (% of total labour force) (modelled ILO estimate) Gross capital formation (% of GDP)Indicator CodeSL.UEM.TOTL.ZSNE.GDI.TOTL.ZSSL.UEM.TOTL.ZSNE.GDI.TOTL.ZS19912.100033.932.400041.3719922.200032.162.500038.4919932.500030.782.900037.4819942.900029.542.500038.5419953.200029.882.100039.0019963.400030.872.000039.6819973.400029.952.600037.4219984.100028.527.000027.7619994.700027.126.300030.9220004.700027.314.400032.9420015.000026.564.000031.5620025.400024.663.300030.9420035.300024.403.600032.0120044.700024.353.700032.1220054.400024.753.700032.1620064.100024.753.500032.7020073.900024.483.200032.5820084.000024.553.200033.0220095.100021.323.600028.4720105.100021.303.700032.0220114.500022.103.400032.9620124.300022.653.200031.0020134.000023.193.100029.1020143.600023.883.500029.2820153.400023.913.600028.9220163.100023.343.700029.21 Figure 2 (Australia)The analysis of the graph of Australia, it can be seen that the gross capital formation in the country has remained stable since 1991 and it has also seen a downward shift in 2001 and 2004. Further, the unemployment rate shows a declining trend whereas it took an upward shift after 2008.Figure 3 (China)The graph made for Gross capital formation reflects that the country has seen the upward trend twice in1992 and in 2003. However, after 2008, the trend is still positive. On the other hand, there is no change in the unemployment which is almost equal to zero.Figure 4 (United Kingdom)The graphical analysis shows that the gross capital formation of the country has seen a decline since 1991 however there remained no change after that. Further, the unemployment rate of the country shows that there has remained instability in the unemployment rate of the country. It has also seen a decline after 1992 and an upward shift after 2009, however, it started declining after 2011.Figure 5 (Japan): The capital formation trend line of the country Japan shows that it has consistently seen a declining trend whereas unemployment rate has seen a steady pattern over the years.Figure 6 (Korea)The graph shows that the country (Korea) has seen two major declines in 1998 and 2009 however it remained stable after 2011 whereas the unemployment trend saw an increase only in 1998 after that it has remained stable. Further, analysis of the year 1998 shows that there had been few remarkable events which impacted the variables such as the deadliest flood, missile test and battle of yeosu etc.QuestionAnalysisThe analysis of the above-mentioned graphs shows that the exchange rates and the trade balance have a direct relationship with each other. When the exchange rates increase the balance of goods and services get a positive return and vice versa.Part BQuestion No. 4According to the aggregate expenditure model Y = C + I + G, when the government shall introduce a tax cut, the money supply in the economy shall increase to reduce the recessionary effects. Further, as the propensity to consume is 0.2 thus the fall in the taxes that are 60 billion shall cause the aggregate expenditures to shift up to (=60bn*0.2) 4 billion.Question No. 5:The decline in the investment expenditure causes to reduce the economic activity in the country. As it has been seen that the tax cut shall shift the aggregate demand curve upward and to the right, it shall tend to increase the output. The increase in output shall also increase the consumption spending of the people as they shall have more incomes to spend. Also, the level of investment spending shall also increase. Not only this the increase in the money demand shall increase the interest rates. This will result in reduced consumption as people start saving more and the investment shall decline because the cost of investment will become higher. Thus to reduce the cost of investment the central bank must follow the expansionary policy and must focus on a different strategy to achieve this goal so that the cost could be maintained at optimal levels.Part CThe organization that I have chosen to see the role of a macroeconomist in an institution is Bank of England. It is a regulator of the commercial banks and serves the banking industry. The bank started as a private bank in 1694 and initially worked as a private bank. Later on, it became a banker to the government and started working independently. The bank became independent so that it could perform its function of setting monetary policy for the country and was freed from the political interference. However, the Government still owns the bank. Bank of England also operates under the framework provided by the government.The bank provides opportunities to the young graduates to be a part of it.  The jobs offered also include a proper job description that provides a criterion of skill set the bank requires the individuals to possess while applying to the organisation. Further, an aspirant for the job in this prestigious organisation, there is a test which conducted to shortlist the candidates for the interview process and further selection processes. My credentials and the projects I have done while studying shall support me in front of my employer. Further, the score I shall obtain in the test shall also complement my stance. However, while encountering the panel interview, I will make an effort to demonstrate the practical application of the concepts that we have learned during study. However, it depends on the questions of the employer that what the direction I will take.As mentioned earlier, being a student of economics we extensively go through the theoretical knowledge, and we also attempt to obtain a field experience while making our projects and different problems solving. However, if my skills match the job description offered by the company, there get maximum chances of getting the job. The job that I aspire to obtain requires me to have excellent research skills, good it skills and statistical information. Not only the technical knowledge but the interpersonal skills are also needed such as working in the teams and maintaining productive working relationships and ability to work under pressure. Thus, my credentials affirm my technical and my interpersonal skills get the validation by the team projects we have done so far. The feedback from the supervisors, while I was working as an intern, is also complementing in this regard.ReferencesHistory, O. (2018). History | Bank of England. [online] Bankofengland.co.uk. Available at: https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/about/history [Accessed 13 Apr. 2018].2012books.lardbucket.org. (2018). The Aggregate Expenditures Model and Fiscal Policy. [online] Available at: https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/macroeconomics-principles-v2.0/s25-02-the-aggregate-expenditures-mod.html [Accessed 13 Apr. 2018].Abs.gov.au. (2018). 5368.0 – International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia, Dec 2017. [online] Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/5368.0Dec%202017?OpenDocument [Accessed 13 Apr. 2018].Reserve Bank of Australia. (2018). Historical Data | RBA. [online] Available at: https://www.rba.gov.au/statistics/historical-data.html [Accessed 13 Apr. 2018].Data.worldbank.org. (2018). Indicators | Data. [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator [Accessed 13 Apr. 2018].Abs.gov.au. (2018). 5204.0 – Australian System of National Accounts, 2016-17. [online] Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/5204.02016-17?OpenDocument [Accessed 13 Apr. 2018].

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