How to Control Crime

Published: 2021-07-06 06:35:51
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Category: Criminology

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IntroductionThe process of concentrating the control of an organization or an activity under a single authority is called centralization. Democratic countries have successfully implemented a centralized police system to manage the resources efficiently and enhance the efficiency of the department. National police force ensures better communication between the authorities which is vital to counter terrorism program. In centralized police force, the duplication of the resources can be avoided.   Discussion Centralized police system is a system in which a police institution or national police agency which is centrally controlled and commanded through a vertical series of command and such police institution has unlimited authority throughout the territory of the country. Countries have varying police systems like Thailand, Uganda, Tanzania, Keyna, Malaysia, and Chile have centralized police systems. In national police force system, overall command is designated by a single national police chief, management, and superintendent. Japan and Brazil have semi- centralized police system. Semi-centralized is the system where the responsibility for law and order is entrusted in both the governments of the component prefectures, provinces, or states as well as the Federal government. United States, India and Pakistan have decentralized law enforcement system which means the responsibility for law and order and the operational control, superintendence, and the management of police agencies is the exclusive responsibility of the provinces or the states governments. USA has the most decentralized law enforcement, categorized by a surprising amount of conflicting and duplicating jurisdiction. The Unite States police is organized as local-level police force, sheriff and county police force, criminal investigation agencies, and the federal system. The American nation have always fear the nationalization of police force and this fear has resulted in multiple police agencies which brings duplication and waste of services.Today, the centralized system is more important than ever because of the growing terrorism in the country. Many European and Asian countries have centralized or national police force. For instance, China Taiwan has very effective centralized police force. The country has a top rates training courses for officers and a low crime rate (Aman).  Having a centralized law enforcement system will strengthen the FBI intelligence. The essential ingredient of a counterterrorism program is centralized management structure, it will enable the Federal Bureau of Investigation to reinforce its intelligence programs, increase headquarters-field coordination, and establish intelligence as a priority at FBI. Some may argue the problem of collecting the intelligence to a strategical leadership, responsible for information technology at the Bureau (Cumming & Masse, 2007). Centralized decision making can correct the deficiency in preventing terrorism by recognizing the role intelligence can play. The 9/11 terrorist attacks, make FBI and CIA realized the importance of coordination and how lack of synchronization has jeopardized on-going intelligence activities. With decentralized system, it is not simple to bring agencies together efficiently to coordinate across multi dimensional jurisdictional lines. Formal and informal coordination, which needs to be achieved secretly and quickly, such as arrests, need to be synchronized across multiple jurisdictional lines. Countries like France, having centralized police force, has eased the organizational challenge of managing local counterterrorism police efforts through hierarchical and centralized command. Centralize system allow authorities to have information-sharing arrangements, better training programs to unify capabilities. In case of narcotics trafficking and gang or organized corruption activity, which have local and international dimensions, and need information coordination and involvement among local and federal police agencies, a well-coordinated system (national police) can ensure the timely execution of these matters. According to James Q. Wilson on police power of state, the best method to uphold the accountability of the police is to retain the lines between the police department and the local community as short as possible. The public judgement carefully watches and influences law enforcement.The perception about a centralized police force, seems like a threat to democratic government and that national force tends to became too insensitive and too remote to the societies it serves. The developed democratic countries such as Israel, Denmark and Belgium have enforced national police systems. Sweden joined the race by nationalizing its law enforcement in 1965. France also made the same changes by merging Paris police and the Surete Nationale into one force. If centralization have anything to do with inconsistent democracy, then these countries would not have implemented it. To answer the question whether implementation of national police force challenges the democracy of the country, it is important to understand the political thought. Political scientist have done a lot of work that says that the senators serving at large populations often seem more approachable to the general public than do their associates in House. Likewise, the police is less concern at local level and more active at the larger level.Centralization promotes the objective of impartial and equal conduct in still other ways. The larger an association is, the more it will incline to formalize and standardize its procedures and methods. In so doing, it will have a tendency to restrain the chances for random performance on the part of its fellows. The formalization and standardization of procedures and rules forces the members of an institute to treat both colleagues and clients, including assistants, in a more neutral manner. The flexible area authorizing the application of discrimination or favoritism becomes consistently reduced. As Professor Grant McConnell has described that impersonality is the assurance of distinct freedom representative of the large unit. Another democratizing aspect eased by centralization is job flexibility. Larger establishments offer more room for their employees to move around in than do slighter ones. The same law in applicable in centralized law enforcement. The policeman of a bigger force who finds himself in a spot that is not of his fondness has a much larger possible chance to make an alteration. This will incline to feast his own liberty and grow his own self-respect while at the same time shortening the capacity of his direct supervisors to practice unwarranted power over him. Work flexibility adds another democratizing part to a police organization, one that is slightly more indirect but one that, at the same time, may be more significant. Job mobility tends to churn the membership of an organization, interjecting from time to time new members into the organization’s sub-units. In doing so, it may lessen the harmony and sense of strangeness in these sub-units and thus lean towards the police force not as much of a state within a state. Professor David Truman, in his milestone work, The Governmental Process, has described the requirement for cross pressures to create a self-governing society workable. The point that its associates are often stressed from dissimilar and occasionally contradictory benefits aids to retain them from radicalism and prepares them with a foundation for bearing other points of view. Job movement may benefit to surge these cross pressures within a police institute by opening up its fellows to better interaction with associated workers of diverse upbringings and perspectives.There are however further benefits which centralization can produce in terms of police democratization. To the degree that such centralism principals to a growth in structural mass, it will also be likely to create the police force further eye-catching to job union organizers and to brand trade unionism additional striking to the cops. This can aid democratize the police power in numerous ways. For one thing, the job union may interrupt a fence between the forces and a decision-making authority determined on spending them to escalate its own supremacy (GEORGE, 1970).Throughout the rainy days of the Algerian disaster in France, the unions aided foil efforts by right-wing foundations in the higher police pyramid to brand the police assist as an instrument of radicalism. Trade unionism also contributes the cop chance to yield share in such independent procedures as the vote of majors and the approval of results. It unlocks the paths for the airing of complaints and for contribution in policymaking. Trade unionism provides spokesmen, policemen and publications of their own. These can upturn society’s information of its police while, all at once, provided that culture with points of contact for attaining the police department. Finally, trade unionism offers the cop some proof of identity with the job union measure usually. This may control the pull to the right which the forces, as signs of defenders of law and property, authority almost always experience.Maximum West European cops suitable in to the job unions and these administrations have aided comfort the complications which so simply rise between society and police in a democracy. In all these republics, police union leaders have claimed that the forces continue as a systematically civilian body; in spite of everything, more belligerence would reduce the union’s authority and they have battled for such things as augmented employee learning, concentrated dependence on power, and enhanced public-police dealings. They also support stop executive authorities from displaying discrimination or favoritism in their employees’ strategies.There are many other profits which centralization, and its attendant feature of significant institute, may deliver. The greater the laws force, the well able it will be to launch wide-ranging teaching staff and educational facilities. Numerous social studies indicate that approval of democratic values and norm inclines to increase with improved learning. Large structural size also upsurges prospects for knowledge and this licenses amplified usage of resident workers. The more citizens in a police force, the further the force will yield on the structures of civil culture.Lastly I would discuss that although the local police being more controllable than national one in practice but actually it is the other way around. In Europe, assemblies have demonstrated much more enthusiasm in practicing police mistake than have community councils.ConclusionPeople have doubts about centralizing the police force. But the need of time is to fully authorize federal bureau of investigation so that terrorism can be handled more effectively. Inter agencies cooperation and fast communication can overcome before-hand terrorist cases. Centralized police force does not impose threat to the democracy of the country but strengthen its ability to provide law enforcement to the community.

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