Hybrid vehicles Essay

Published: 2021-07-07 00:01:11
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IntroductionHybrid vehicles provide an efficient alternative to the conventional vehicles in the auto industry. The use of hybrid electric vehicles increased in the world due to the efficiency and technological advancements. The technology offered in hybrid vehicles is capable of replacing the conventional cars. Diverse sets of hybrid cars are available in America that offers range of benefits to the consumers. The major benefit associated with the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is reduced costs and carbon emission. Hybrid vehicles improves fuel efficiency and performance of the vehicle. Hajderi and Paco (2017) define HEV as, “engine that works with conventional or alternative fuels and an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery.Extra power provided by the electric motor creates the possibility of a smaller engine, resulting in better economy of fuel without sacrificing performance” (HAJDERI and PACO). Hybrid vehicles exhibit differences when compared with the conventional vehicles while prominent benefits include HEV are effective in reduction of air pollution due to no carbon emission. In terms of usability HEV is a better choice compared to the conventional vehicles that consumes massive fuels. As the society will be unable to fulfill their energy requirements due to oil depletion. The limited battery life of the HEV’s poses challenges for its acceptance in the vehicle industry. Predictions states that the sales and use of HEVs will increase after 2020 due to the cheaper batteries and longer range (Reynolds and Kandlikar).The present study aims at assessing the practical aspects of hybrid electric vehicles and their capability of replacing the conventional vehicles. The purpose of the study is to explore the benefits associated with HEV’s that make them more appropriate choice for the future consumers. It highlights the key benefits such as reduced fuel consumption and carbon emission as visible strengths, making HEV’s better than conventional vehicles. The study assesses the future market for HEV’s and its survival in the conventional vehicle industry. The paper studies the role of cost reduction due to the declined oil consumption on vehicle industry. It also uncovers the benefits such as low carbon emission making HEV’s better choice for future consumers. the present study suggests HEV as a effective solution to overcome the environmental problems including carbon emission and global warming (Liao, Molin and Wee).1.1 Objectives of the studyTo assess the benefits associated with hybrid vehicles.To determine if HEV’s are capable of replacing conventional vehicles in future.To identify the costs associated with HEV’s.To determine the impact of HEV’s on carbon emission.To explore if the benefits associated with HEV makes it better choice.1.2 HypothesisHybrid vehicles offer benefits to the consumer that makes it a better choice.HEV’s are capable of replacing conventional vehicles in future.The benefits of low carbon emission and low costs make HEV a better choice.1.3 MethodologyThe present study relies on the empirical evidence obtained from scholarly database. The analysis of benefits depends on the articles and journals highlighting strengths and usability of hybrid electric vehicles. The empirical evidence provides comparison of HEV’s and other conventional vehicles. Through assessment of the costs and environmental benefits the literature on HEV’s helps in identifying their role in vehicle industry (Hajderi & Paco, 2017). The study used search engines including Google scholar and other credible sources such as JSTOR and Science Direct. Through entering relevant keywords identification of relevance articles and journals was possible (Liao, Molin and Wee).1.4 Ethical issuesThe research adopted the standards of ethics to avoid ethical issues including plagiarism. Proper referencing is used to avoid inclusion of copied content in the study. The study considered the consent of the participants to avoid conflict. Honesty and integrity are useful in avoiding misrepresentation of information (Reynolds and Kandlikar).1.5 LimitationsThe study uncovers the gap in literature related to the HEV’s and highlights the need for assessing the realistic role of hybrid electric cars in the vehicle industry. The present study will provide information about the usability and benefits of HEV to the future researchers.Key terms: hybrid vehicles, efficiency, low carbon emission, and environment protection.Findings of the study2.1 Empirical evidenceHajderi and Paco (2017) studied the usability and role of hybrid electric vehicles in the vehicle industry. The empirical evidence reveals the effectiveness of hybrid vehicles and identifies its potentialities of replacing the conventional vehicles. Driving fuel saving remains the visible advantage of the HEV as it consumes only 38% fuel in the city and 20% in the highway when compared to the fuel consumption of the conventional vehicle. The in-built design of the engine makes HEV cars more fuel efficient resulting in low carbon emission. The costs faced by the driver of HEV is two times smaller compared to the conventional vehicle. Evidence suggests that the cost of fuel per mile is 0.05 to 0.07 dollars. While in case of conventional vehicle the cost per mile is recorded as 0.10 to 0.15 dollars. The findings of the study reveals that HEV is a better choice compared to the conventional vehicle in terms of performance and efficiency. Consumption of less fuel makes HEV more efficient as they eliminates environmental pollution (Hajderi & Paco, 2017).2.2 Benefits of hybrid vehiclesKarim and Shahid (2017) explored the usability and benefits of the hybrid electricity cars in the US automobile industry. The study identifies the central advantage of the vehicle as transformation from single source energy to multiple sources. Sophisticated mechanical and electrical systems offered by HEV provide environment friendly option to the consumers. The study proposes the conversion of fuel based conventional car to solar-electric hybrid cars. The study identifies the potential benefits of HEV allowing consumers to save fuel, cost and environment protection. HEV is an effective solution to control pollution resulting from carbon emission. In terms of cost and usability HEV can replace conventions vehicles (Karim and Shahid). Empirical evidence on the performance of HEV depicts its presentation as a mid-term solution to the low emission and high mileage vehicles.The comparison of engine performance and mileage coverage depicts that HEV can cover more distance with fewer fuel consumption. However literature recognize HEV as low-pollution cars that are more suitable for the current vehicle industry (Rapier). The perceived benefits of the HEV depend on the technical and environmental image. The basic function that provides leverage to the HEV is the technology enhancement allowing it to store energy in battery compared to the conventional vehicle’s storage of fuel. Combining efficient combustion engines with the batteries enhances the performance of the HEV. Batteries also provide supplementary engine power that allows speed recovery (Chanaron and Teske).The evaluation of markets for HEV depicts its growth in the US vehicle industry. The major states of America allow HEV registration including Florida, California, Texas and New York. The market share of hybrid cars is big in the developed countries. The share of the hybrid cars shrinks in the developing countries. The market shares of hybrid cars will improve in the developed countries like US in the next few years. Literature identifies that the market shares of HEV will improve until 2030. Rising fuel prices in the vehicle industry depicts the possibilities of increased HEV demand in future. Growing environmental concerns due to global warming and carbon emission makes HEV more feasible for the industry.HEV provides environment friendly solution to the people that convinces them to switch to the new and safe technology. People of society are more likely to adopt HEV due to their proactive role in the society. the modern combustion technology for the engine offered by HEV relies on high precision gasoline injection resulting in reduced fuel consumption. Evidence suggests that HEV technology is efficient in reduction of fuel consumption as it lowers the generation of carbons dioxide and nitrogen. Regenerative braking is an additional feature that provides edge to the HEV technology compared to the conventional vehicles. Braking in stop-and-go traffic leads to enhanced efficiency (Reynolds and Kandlikar).Improved energy storage adds to more efficiency of HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicles. Regenerative braking accelerates the performance leading to high-energy capacity and efficient release of energy. HEV’s rely on batteries that are made up of nickel-metal-hydride that is relatively heavy. Lithium batteries offer lighter batteries that are more efficient in energy saving. Fuel efficiency makes HEV more reliable and efficient for the vehicle industry as it eliminates the issues of energy waste or consumption of fossil fuels. Fuel efficiency makes HEV capable for replacing the conventional vehicles. empirical evidence suggests that HEV is a better alternative to the old traditional vehicles that consumer more energy and fuels. HEV provides cost effective solution to the people as it allow to save fuel and money. Tax breaks also offers advantages to the purchasers of hybrid cars. The international policy of environment protection allows people to buy hybrid cars. Incentives for the buyers include savings, discounts and tax rebates. Lighter weight and smaller gas engine provides more efficient solution to the consumers. Improved equipment and reliability involved in HEV makes it a better alternative of conventional vehicles (HAJDERI and PACO).2.3 Future prospects and demand of HEVThe data obtained from the vehicle industry of United States reveals that the consumption of oil is significantly high in the transportation department. The total consumption of oil in the transport department is 70%. Increased reliance of the country on fossil fuels depicts the need for curtailing oil consumption. Hybrid electric vehicle provides advantage to the industry as it reduces the consumption of oils. HEV is also efficient in attaining economic development. Reduced energy spending and decline in oil imports creates economic opportunities for the country. The comprehensive analysis of the vehicle industry in America reflects the benefits of HEV (Karim and Shahid).Liao, Molin and Wee (2016) explores the future prospects of HEV in global vehicle industry. The literature on the HEV depicts the demand for hybrid vehicles will increase in future. The state’s role in promotion of HEV due to the perceived environmental and cost benefits provides wider scope for conversion of conventional vehicle industry to hybrid industry. The prospects suggests strong promotion policies adopted by governments for the purpose of increase HEV’s consumption (Liao, Molin and Wee).2.4 Consumer preferences and HEVEmpirical studies on consumer preferences exhibits the profound role of pricing and costs. The reduced energy costs due to reduced fuel consumption has positive impact on the purchase decision of the consumers. The motivation of consumers plays vital role in their decision of choosing HEV over conventional cars. Behavioral economics explains the main incentive during purchase decision remains the price of purchase. The consumer theory of preferences sates that the consumers chooses from available set of alternatives. Consumer preference theory suggests that the comparison of the cost associated with HEV will increase the chances of consumers purchase. Reduces fuel consumption and saving due to low energy consumption acts as primary incentive. HEV offers reduced operating cost due to one time battery purchase thus allowing consumers to save money. Increased costs have negative impact on consumer decision-making. Battery range also has positive influence on the purchase decisions of individuals in vehicle industry. Driving range is high in case of HEV compared to the conventional cars that influence the consumer preferences negatively (Liao, Molin and Wee).2.5 Sale trends of HEV in USThe sales of hybrid vehicles increased massively in United States in the last few years. the sales of electric vehicles reflected increase of 37% in 2016. Total vehicles sold in the year were 159,139. The popular models of HEV sold in America include Telsa Model S, Telsa Model X, Nissan Leaf, Ford Fusion and Chevrolet Volt. California sets target of selling 1.5 million hybrid cars by the year 2025. The sales reflected growth of 32% in 2016, depicting the increase in market share compared to the previous years. The global sales depicts increase of 42% with selling of 777,497 vehicles. The current statistics indicates further increase in the sales of HEV’s in the country (Rapier). Data suggests that the most common reason for people to buy electric cars is environment protection. Among total consumers 87% exhibited willingness to purchase HEV for environmental concerns, 62% reflected concerns against low long-term costs and 52% wanted to avail the facility for enjoying technology. The survey from the American consumers reveals that they plan to but hybrid cars (Karim and Shahid).ConclusionHybrid vehicles are capable of replacing the conventional vehicles due to the range of benefits that it offers. The use of efficient technology makes HEV a practical replacement of conventional vehicles. The prominent benefits of the new vehicle includes fuel efficiency and cost saving. Due to increased consumption of fuels conventional vehicles increase pollution resulting from high carbon emission. Pollution generated from conventional vehicles also contributed to the environmental issue of global warming. The impact of low carbon emission and concerns related to environment protection also leads to positive consumer preferences. The decisions of consumers’ acts in favor of the HEV industry thus increasing its demand in future. The replacement of conventional vehicle industry to HEV depends on the factors of cost and fuel efficiency.The costs of HEV are lower compared to the conventional vehicles that again make the new technology a better choice for the consumers. Although HEV offers wide range of benefits to the community, its purchase depends on the consumer preferences. The study assessed the implications of HEV in the society and its usability for the consumers. The research relied on the empirical evidence on the benefits of HEV available in scholarly database. The articles and library resources supports the usability of HEV and recognize it as one of the efficient technology capable of replacing conventional vehicles. Due to environmental destruction caused by increased carbon emission the study suggests HEV as a efficient model to replace conventional vehicles.The study supports the hypothesis as the empirical evidence identify the effectiveness of HEV. The first hypothesis states that hybrid vehicles offer benefits to the consumer that makes it a better choice. The scholarly database confirms the role of HEV in cost reduction and fuel efficiency that makes it a better choice compared to the conventional vehicles. The findings reveals that HEV consumers 38% less fuel in city and 20% less fuel in highway that supports the primary hypothesis of the study. The results also supports the second hypothesis stating that HEV’s are capable of replacing conventional vehicles in future. The increase costs faced by consumers and the inclusion of consumer preferences provides sufficient support to the hypothesis.Consumer preferences relying on the elements of cost and fuel efficiency makes it possible for the industry to replace conventional vehicles. Findings of literature on HEV depicts that HEV has effective role in elimination of carbon emissions that supports the final hypothesis; the benefits of low carbon emission and low costs make HEV a better choice. The results depicting that 87% of the consumers shows incentives to purchase HEV for environmental concerns, supports the hypothesis. The overall analysis of the empirical evidence proves that HEV is a better choice for the consumers. The findings of the study also favor the hypothesis as it highlights reduced oil consumption as a visible advantage. The study identifies the negative impacts of conventional vehicles due to excessive consumption of fuels leading to the problem of oil depletion. The study suggests replacing conventional vehicles with the HEV’s as it helps in reducing fuel consumption thus eliminating the problem of oil depletion.RecommendationsThe present study represents recommendations for the future research as mentioned below;The future researchers can conduct analysis of the costs associated with the HEV’s and conventional vehicles.To conduct a forecast of the HEV’s demand in the future and how it could replace the conventional vehicles.To study how efficient barratries are in replacing the fuel consumption and how it can increase the performance of HEV’s.A thorough analysis of the operational capabilities that makes HEV a better model for automotive industry due to its perceived benefits of environmental safety.To study how state can promote HEV’s sales and discourage the selling of conventional vehicles in the automotive industry.Work citedChanaron, Jean-Jacques and Julius Teske. “Hybrid vehicles: a temporary step.” International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management 7.4 (2007).HAJDERI, ASLLAN and STAVRI PACO. “HYBRID VEHICLES AND THEIR IMPACT ON POLLUTION REDUCTION IN URBAN AREAS.” Interdisplinary Journal of Research and Development 4 (2017).Karim, A. and Z. Shahid. “Performance and Cost Analysis of Conventional Petrol Car Converted Into Solar-Electric Hybrid Car.” J. Energy Resour. Technol 140.3 (2017).Liao, Fanchao, Eric Molin and Bert van Wee. “Consumer preferences for electric vehicles: a literature review .” Journal Transport Reviews 37.3 (2017).Rapier, Robert. U.S. Electric Vehicle Sales Soared In 2016 . 2017. 16 04 2018 .Reynolds, C and M Kandlikar. “How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption.” Environmental Research Letters 2.1 (2007).

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