Clashing views on psychological issuesCitationGantt, E.E., & Slife, B. (2016). Taking sides: Clashing views on psychological issues (19th ed. expanded). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.SummaryIn the above mentioned book, Edward Gantt tosses two opposing arguments regarding the nature of the issue of homosexuality, in the course of this argument he provides Neuroendocrinologist Jacques Balthazart’s position that claims homosexuality known to be organized by parental steroids while on the contrary, Stanton L. Jones and Alex W. Kwee have an opposing position that counter argue the reliability of the evidence provided by Edward Gantt. They argue that the current research on the biological roots of homosexuality provides no well-founded evidence to claim it as the natural way of human behavior and that the re-orientation should not be dismissed as a treatment option.RationaleIt has always been nature or nurture, this study follow the same traditional approach. One side holds the position of the essentialists and the other of the constructionists. According to the essentialists sexual orientation is natural and inborn while the on the contrary according to constructivists it is constructed by the external stimuli such as our environment. Almost every source listed in this outline would follow this same scheme of categorization of arguments.Is homosexuality Biological?CitationBarinaga, M. (1991). Is homosexuality biological?. Science, 253(5023), 956-958.SummaryThis argument also starts with the two opposing rationale regarding the issue of homosexuality in homo-sapiens, the part of the evidence comes from Simon LevVay’s (a neurologist) article that immediately raised controversies by presenting evidence that there is a brain region known as anterior hypothalamus which actually governs sexual behavior has the structural form that resembles with that of women.RationaleThe argument is based on the anatomical difference of this form in homosexual and heterosexual men. The difference in the part of that particular part of the brain that controls our sexual urges interprets a major difference in the making of brains of the homosexuals. It indicates the natural presence of homosexuality despite of cultural and geographical indications. Dennis Landis a neurologist says “If it’s true, the implications are amazing, it would begin to suggest why male homosexuality is present in most human populations, despite cultural constrains. It suggests it’s a biological phenomen.”An American obsession: Science, medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern SocietyCitationTerry, J. (1999). An American obsession: Science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society. University of Chicago Press.SummaryIn An American obsession: Science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society Terry J raises some crucial questions regarding the position of LGBT community, their movement and most importantly their disgust for scientific, he also proposes the diversity of opinion present in these groups regarding the authority of modern scientific research regarding homosexuality. The book has a range of discussions that includes history of homosexual movements, the gradual progress in the medicine and scientific research concerning the justification of homosexual behaviour and also highlights the position of the detractors that see homosexuality as the sign of the demise of human history.RationaleThe study of scientific ideas and medicine throughout the history suggests some general prejudices that conditioned and mold it for their personal gains, like Nazi Germany and the Japanese did during world war two in order to justify their actions they used evolution by natural selection.Queer science: The use and abuse of research into homosexualityCitationLeVay, S. (1996). Queer science: The use and abuse of research into homosexuality. mit Press.SummaryThis source gives and insightful view of the scientific, psychological as well as the philosophical take-over on Homosexuality. What are the reason for homosexuality? Nature or nurture? The biological studies include the study of genes, mental traits, and stress and questions the general perceptions regarding homosexuality.RationaleIt starts to answer this question by providing references from antiquity such as Plato’s Symposium where Aristophanes became the first essentialist to claim the objectivity involves in one’s sexual orientation as an inborn characteristic. The references also include biblical figures like Saint Paul and some other literary figures like Oscar Wild.Biological exuberance: Animal homosexuality and natural diversityCitationBagemihl, B. (1999). Biological exuberance: Animal homosexuality and natural diversity. MacmillanSummaryBiologists have always interested in finding ways to study animal sexual orientation in order to understand human sexuality or to get some insights into the working of human sexual behavior through natural diversity. In the Biological exuberance: Animal homosexuality and natural diversity is a precise, easy to get to and no-dramatized information regarding the subject of homosexuality among animals.Rationale:The source explored the variety of behavior studied in animals regarding their sexual orientation. It uses evolution as an active force that controls animal’s sexuality by giving example of the animals which are no-breeders and some which suppress their reproduction and do sex only for pleasure.Science and HomosexualitiesCitationRosario, V. A. (Ed.). (1997). Science and homosexualities. Psychology PressSummaryThis collection of papers edited by Rosario is a rich material that infuses many gapes regarding human sexuality, it covers a range of topics that cover historical, as well as political, ethical and scientific issues involves in the study of homosexuality.Rationale:Is homosexuality biological? After reading this multiplicity of ideas and opinions based on factual findings both scientific and semi-scientific, one can understand many things like the religious and political extremism comprises in the scientific studies.A Natural History of HomosexualityCitationMondimore, F. M. (1996). A natural history of homosexuality. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press.SummaryRosario’s Science and Homosexualities seeks arguments and research made during the course of human history and intends to give careful consideration on the scientific knowledge that points out a humanistic and a normative view on human sexual orientation, it also includes, sexual identities, sexual politics., sexual histories, and, sexual biology.RationaleAs we would see that there had been researches made by people only to instigate propaganda and hatred for the homosexuals. This kind of research is flawed due to its subjectivity and biasness. Rosario’s Science and Homosexualities intends to highlights such prejudices that reinforce a disease modelling towards human sexual orientation.What does Sexual Orientation Orient?Citation Diamond, L. M. (2003). What does sexual orientation orient? A biobehavioral model distinguishing romantic love and sexual desire.SummaryThe idea that the heterosexuals have the feelings of love only towards the opposite sex and that homosexuals are only attracted towards the same sex has been a myth. The author adopt a biobehavioral model for desire and love. It intends to distinguish between sexual desire and affectional love. The people are most probably inclined to a love bond that does not in fact involves sexual desire.RationaleThis is very interesting overview of one of the most puzzling things regarding homosexuality when it comes to affection and love that not necessarily involves sexual urges. The biobehavioral model uses scientific method to investigate and, hence, distinguish romantic love from sexual desire.A Critical Review of Recent Biological Research on Human Sexual OrientationCitation Mustanski, B. S., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2002). A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation. Annual review of sex researchSummaryMustanki intends to critically assessment of the current biological research on human sexual orientation. It has been critically measured according to rising standards through extreme evidential measures. The critical evaluation undertake theories like genetic influences, neurohormonal theory of sexual orientation, the putative role for development instability and fraternal birth order effects.RationaleAlthough there are many inconsistencies in the results there seems to be a strong supportive argument in favor of neurohormonal theory mostly in men. Genetic theory used twins and family methodologies does suggests genes influence on human sexual orientation. But on the other hand molecular studies do show many inconsistencies towards some genes. Hence, limitations in biological research for human sexual orientation has been noted in the conclusion.Homosexuality and BiologyCitationBurr, C. (1993). Homosexuality and biology. ATLANTIC-BOSTON-, 271, 47-47.SummaryLike many sources cited in this outline Burr be set to undertake the so-called similar method of critical evaluation of the research done in the field of biology and medicine on human sexual orientation.RationaleUnlike other sources cited in this outline this one differ in one aspect and that is the innate impossibility and complexity involve in scientific investigation regarding the issues of human sexual orientation. This paper highpoints the mysterious nature of human brain and the in-authenticities of the neurological research that pervades authority of the generality of the findings.ReferencesBagemihl, B. (1999). Biological exuberance: Animal homosexuality and natural diversity. Macmillan.Barinaga, M. (1991). Is homosexuality biological?. Science, 253(5023), 956-958.Burr, C. (1993). Homosexuality and biology. ATLANTIC-BOSTON-, 271, 47-47.Diamond, L. M. (2003). What does sexual orientation orient? A biobehavioral model distinguishing romantic love and sexual desire. Psychological review, 110(1), 173.Gantt, E.E., & Slife, B. (2016). Taking sides: Clashing views on psychological issues (19th ed. expanded). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.LeVay, S. (1996). Queer science: The use and abuse of research into homosexuality. mit Press.Mondimore, F. M. (1996). A natural history of homosexuality. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins University Press.Mustanski, B. S., Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2002). A critical review of recent biological research on human sexual orientation. Annual review of sex research, 13(1), 89-140.Rosario, V. A. (Ed.). (1997). Science and homosexualities. Psychology Press.Terry, J. (1999). An American obsession: Science, medicine, and homosexuality in modern society. University of Chicago Press.