IntroductionKetamine is a highly specialized pain management drug. Ketamine was invented in 1960’s and was majorly used in anesthesia (Sherman, et al. 2016, p.58). Today, ketamine is used in emergency or disaster relief anesthesia. Veterinary officers also use it as an anesthetic agent. The use of ketamine in chronic pain management arose when patients recovering from anesthesia who experienced severe pain reported improvements in their pain. These patients also reported that the pain relief could sometimes last for months following ketamine anesthesia. Ketamine is usually used in treatment of neuropathic pains in severe conditions such as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Sherman, et al. 2016, p.58).Ketamine InfusionKetamine infusion is a specialized analgesia technique used in management of moderate to severe pain. Administering a ketamine infusion is a procedure that involves delivery of recommended doses of ketamine intravenously in a hospital setting (Liu, Zerbo, & Ross, 2014). The procedure involves insertion of a plastic cannula into a vein in the arm and the ketamine is administered through a computer aided infusion pump. Patients’ vital signs such as pulse rate and blood pressure are monitored regularly. Pain level and infusion are also monitored hourly by the physician. Ketamine infusion may also be administered along with opioids. Use of opioid infusions alone may minimize opioid tolerance when prolonged administration of opioid is anticipated or may result in inadequate analgesia (Liu, Zerbo, & Ross, 2014).In some situations, ketamine infusions may also be used alone.Use of Ketamine in Analgesic Therapy for Pain PatientsKetamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist receptor. It is widely used in pain management and anesthesia. Ketamine works acts by binding to the phencyclidinic site on post synaptic channels and reduces the opening time and frequency of ion channels. The inhibition caused by ketamine at the NMDA receptor is dose-depended in that the recovery and onset from the inhibition are increased by administering NMDA agonists. The use of ketamine in management of chronic pain is related to nerve or neuropathic pain. It is considered as a third-line agent when first and second-line agents such as anti-depressants, anti-seizure medications, and narcotics do not adequately relieve pain.Physical Effects of KetamineUse of ketamine is associated with various short-term and long-term effects. Individuals who have used ketamine report that the effects are similar to the effects of Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a hallucinogenic drug (Luckenbaugh, et al. 2014, p.59). The hallucinations can last for up to one hour after their manifestation, but other effects can last for up to 24 hours from the previous use of the drug. Other physical effects associated with ketamine use include:Increased salivationDizzinessSlurred speechExtremely rapid heat beatVomitingSeizuresImmobilityLack of memory or blackoutRapid, uncontrollable eye movementsPsychological effects of KetamineThe psychological effects associated with use of ketamine can be as intense the physical effects of using the drug (Luckenbaugh, et al. 2014, p.60). They can include:Impaired cognitive abilitySedationLesser awareness of the environmentVivid dreamsA feeling of disorientationChest painInability to concentrateIntense hallucinationsAltered perception of body, sounds, environment, and timeConclusionIn summary, ketamine is a specialized pain management drug used in anesthesia. Today, ketamine is used in emergency or disaster relief anesthesia and vets use it as an anesthetic agent. Ketamine infusion is an analgesia technique used in management of moderate to severe pain and involves delivery of recommended doses of ketamine intravenously in a hospital setting. Ketamine is a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist receptor used in pain management and anesthesia. Its use is associated with various physical and psychological effects such as hallucination, sedation, vomiting and rapid heartbeat.ReferencesLuckenbaugh, D. et al. (2014). Do the dissociative side effects of ketamine mediate its antidepressant effects? Journal of affective disorders, 159, 56-61.Liu, J. X., Zerbo, E., & Ross, S. (2014). Intensive ketamine use for multiple years: A case report. The American journal on addictions.Sherman, S. J., Estevez, M., Magill, A. B., & Falk, T. (2016). Case Reports Showing a Long-Term Effect of Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion in Reducing L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias. Case reports in neurology, 8(1), 53-58.