Marine Ecotourism of United States Research Paper

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ABSTRACTThe basic aim of this study focuses on the marine ecotourism of United States. The political and social factors having positive impacts on the marine ecotourism have been discussed in the paper. It also shows the governance history and practical implication, USA has taken in order to make the marine tourism develop in their country. This study also aims on making marine ecotourism, an industry which is socially acceptable, and to attract the tourists to their country. Marine ecotourism has been discussed with respect to the political aspects affecting it, and the positive influence on marine tourism. Then, a hypothesis is made for the study, which is further detailed in the study. The study will support the hypothesis to make a positive outcome, for the betterment of the ecotourism. At the end, conclusion is made about the findings and details of the study.Social and political aspects of Marine EcotourismIntroductionEcotourism is basically an organized activity related to marine life, different policies and laws govern this activity. The crux of ecotourism is to promote marine life and appreciate tourism from all around the world to know about marine life. Habitation of marine life and their protection is questioned when activities like tourism is held to promote ecotourism (Fernando & Shariff, 2015). But there is need of proper legislation on government level, and policy maker must take the facts and threats into accounts while making policies and laws for ecotourism. The fact is that almost 71% of the earth is covered by water, thus marine life and ecotourism is must concerned question.Political barriers are the main challenges face by every country in forming rules and policies to execute their task. A visionary political will can promote the task to a greater success. The success behind the western ecotourism sector is their policies and proper legislation. That is why most of the studies and research were made by western countries on ecotourism. Until no such a remarkable contribution done by developing countries like Middle East countries (Fernando & Shariff, 2015). This shows their ignorance toward the issue of marine life. But we cannot neglect the importance of government intervention and policy makers. The main role play by the government to legislate proper laws to execute tasks related to ecotourism. Western countries are for beyond in their consideration toward ecotourism. Most of research has been conducted on vistors to zoo and aquarium is conducted in USA.Aim of the ResearchThe basic aim of this study focuses on the marine ecotourism of United States. The political and social factors having positive impacts on the marine ecotourism have been discussed in the paper.HypothesisPolitical and social aspects have a positive impact on marine ecotourism.Despite of the fact that Middle East is the best spot for the ecotourism, there has not been such research and work which can promote ecotourism and provide safe side. Golf countries and countries along the coastal line of Indian oceans are fare behind than western countries in protecting ecotourism and marine life. Their failure may lie in their policy making procedure and may be lack of concentration toward marine life. Report shows that almost US$2.4 revenue is generating annually through activities of ecotourism (Dawn news) (Fernando & Shariff, 2015). Middle East can be good spot for Eco tourists but, since they have a considerable amount of coastal line, nice sunny spots and open beaches. The matter can be encounter through political approaches. Formulation of policies will be the defining factor of ecotourism luck. So fare we discussed a general idea about ecotourism and their sporting allies, like western world is dominating in this particular field, either it be research or revenue generation.USA and EcotourismUnited States of America is investing considerable amount of budgets on ecotourism. As per capita income is increasing and peoples are moving toward better qualities of life, their demand for tourism and related activities increases (Min, 2016). They spend relatively large amount of budget on ecotourism. As their leisure activities increase and their will for roaming around the world is more. A study shows that almost 900 million tourists from United States of America is annually registered for tourist activities. These activities include, visiting to sea areas, forests, recreation sites, historical places and other spots (Min, 2016). Reason behind this huge amount of flux in the field of tourism from USA is their economic wellbeing. They own more encome hence their leisure activities increase.All tourism related activities undertaken by private and public institution. Funds are generated different organization to execute the tasks. Institutions are settled to protect the tourism sector, which includes protection of marine life, provide convince for tourists, and making proper polices to guard ecotourism. These institutions are mostly privately owned and locally managed. However government of United States has numerous water and land management agencies with the aim to protect and promote ecotourism and land management. These organizations are (NPS), (FWS), (BLM), and (NFMS). Number of other ecotourism places are managed and protect by government and local agencies (Study Submitted to the World Ecotourism Summit by U.S. Department of State May, 2002).Arrangement of policies and managementManagement and planning of any task is challenging one but under proper guidance and monitoring of experts can lead the task toward a successful ending. So far United States of America has a proper setup on local level as well as on government level (Min, 2016). Task of planning and management is carry out by locally settled organizations and sometime government intervenes in mega projects through its policies and funds. Political will is determining factor in tasks execution and planning procedure. Planning and management of ecotourism mainly consists of , fund raising, revenue generation, data collection, data processing, provide guideline to tourist, taking care of tourism sides, and much more. In these all undertaking activities community involvement make ensure to minimize the conflict which may arise between protection interest and tourism development interest.The proposed tourism operation were analyzed by federal and government agencies has to evaluate the socio economic benefit of the tasks. After making sure that the following task is beneficial for the stake holders, implementation is conformed. Land management training center in the country, provides specialized courses for their employees to communicate along with the community in the matter. The most successful ecotourism operation depends upon the overall infrastructural development, programs managements, and maintaining the level of tourism. Level management can protect the resource from being over used and degradation. While infrastructural enhancement can value added to the operation. Organization of programs for tourists may give an awareness to them which in return increase the flux of tourists. In this way revenue generation increase.This all procedure is pivoted to the political role of the country. An open and friendly foreign policy encourages ecotourism while strictness in policies may impede ecotourism. Some of the Middle East country faces many challenges in promoting ecotourism because of the orientation of their policies. Sometime terror threats and religious sanctions stand in the way of ecotourism. Whatever the challenges are the solution lies in the erection of strong policies bearing institution.Ordinance Ecotourism activities in united states of America is regulate at various level, from local level to government level all organizations subjected to their own status, conditions, possibilities and challenges. Land are Ecotourism activities in the U.S.A is regulated by the government of United States while at local level tourist activities are arranged by the public by their own accord, in such cases different NGOs and private organization involves. The regulatory authorities have main objective of stipulating code of conducts, carry out environmental protection measures, guide provision and motor boat licensing. Penalties are also conduct when improper or mismanagement occur while executing tasks or touring the sides. These regulatory bodies have full authority over natural resources. They can legislate laws and forms polices which can be beneficent for the users.Beside these all responsibilities regulatory authorities watch out for any environmental impacts case by ecotourism operations. Environmental influences like, noise, public terrific, and collecting of plants and animal raw materials can be minimized by the ordinance. Otherwise disturbance in ecosystem may occur. Like birds can get distract from their nests and other habitants may be disturb by tourist activities (Min, 2016). The two pioneer agencies of ordinance with broad zoning authority over land management and ecotourism uses are in New York and in New Jersey. These ordinance bearing institutions have pivotal role in guarding ecotourism related activities. Beside from polices making they focused on operation of polices, their pros and corns and effects on other factors. A strong organization reflects its functionality via executing its task under the prescribed laws. It is crystal clear that politics role is mandatory in formulation of such institution and policies.Controlling and future outlooksMaintaining efficiency and utilizing the natural resources is the main objective of the government of United States. Any activity which prolonged for extended time is known as efficiently undertaken. In this very concept future consumption is retained. This procedure involve a proper check and balance over the activities and operations ecotourism executes. Keeping the future perspective in mind the ordinance and regulatory authorities acquired certain policies and tasks which preserves the natural resources as well as provide a better ecotourism opportunity for the tourists coming all over around the world. The activities of ecotourism’s are monitor by benefit cost analysis on annual basis. By knowing the flux of tourists they can formulate their policies, that how to maintain the revenue and protect the natural resources. A proper analysis of profit goes to stakeholders and revenue generated by the agencies can led to formulate actions and task that can keep a balance and maintain the efficiency.The US federal agencies have been assessing external recreational activities on a regular basis. One of such agency National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration analyzed external recreational wants/needs and environmental requirements for the civilians. A survey in the past estimated 209M visitors to national forests of the country and 14.3M visitors to wilderness areas within the country.Industry of ecotourism of United States of America indicates that growing number of tourist’s visits recreational places and tourism sides. Which in turn case a severe threat to the ecosystem. This problem can be managed and retaliate through proper education of tourism sides’ usage and taking care of the places where tourist visits. Marine life is getting disturb by boating and unnecessary roaming around the spots. This can disturb their mating schedule, and excessive garbage thrown to the pounds may cause death of death of fishes.Literature ReviewPolitical and social aspects of marine ecotourism in the US have been discussed in the paper. The positive and negative influence on them has been discussed in detail in the article. How they affect the ecotourism, and what influences these factors. What people and processes are involved in it.The body of the text:To support the hypothesis, environmental and geographical factors are discussed, that what impact they have on the ecotourism sector. What aspects are the vital responsible factors, influencing the marine ecotourism environment?The geographical aspects of this study are the areas of US, where marine ecotourism is highly visited and practiced. The geographic illustration of US areas of tourism influences how the fields can be made better for marine tourism activities (Chuamuangphan & Palmer, 2017). As one rough country, US has a diverse and vast area of natural resources. The United States has a broad tradition of ecotourism publically and privately. With the growth of American population, the demand for tourism has also increased. For this purpose, America can invest a lot in the marine tourism. According to a survey, 900M people visit parks, monuments, recreational areas, and national parks annually. These visits include the wildlife viewing, hiking, swimming, and marine site viewing (Chuamuangphan & Palmer, 2017). The government of United States has land and water management agencies, who promote and support ecotourism, which includes country’s National Park Service, Forest Service, U.S Marine and Wildfire service, US Bureau of Land Management, and Marine US Fisheries Service.It is acknowledged, that the political aspect has a different relationship with the marine ecotourism. A lot of work has been done to improve the economy of tourism and ecotourism. People need to be aware of the nature of travel, which is always referred to the ethics and tourism cultures. People are mostly not aware of the new tourism terms, like ecotourism. Ecotourism is often termed as complex and not easily understood. Most of the time, this is true because of the political influence on it. Its sustainability is the issue nowadays and should be worth arguing (Schofield et.al, 2015).Lack of Goal setting: Socially, marine ecotourism has been left behind by people, and do not give importance to it. However, this factor has made a significant impact on the development of ecotourism. Steps towards its development have not been of interest to the people, and this leads to the decrease in the ecotourism. If the society takes an interest in the sustainability of the marine wildlife and its development, this issue can be resolved globally.The environmental factors are creating a severe issue in the coastal areas. When it comes to ecotourism, environment plays an important part which includes the consumption, deletion of biodiversity, resource use, of wastes and pollution. Moreover, mountains, rivers, forests, and other coastal environments are a basis to improve, to make the marine and other tourism a success (Chuamuangphan & Palmer, 2017).When adverse environmental factors influence the ecotourism, the protection of environment also comes in to study. This way, the travel and the marine side environment is interlinked with each other. If they tend to work as one goal, the could provide efficient economic development. One of the cases from which environment of ecotourism has been affected is the disposal of toxic materials, such as fuels, cleaning materials, and other toxic substances into seabed or oceans. It changes the environment of marine life and its tourism. It can include the environmental disturbance from boat and land activities, i.e., water, air, and soil pollution. This happens mostly in the peak tourism seasons, which is because of the improper implementation of pollution control measures. It also impacts the health of the people around it and the wildlife. The public also plays a big part in this, where they also dispose of the litters in the sea and areas around it.Another factor is the diverse damage of the near shores of marine ecosystems, especially the coral banks by the boat drivers and the public (Schofield et.al, 2015). Connectors and the chains connected to them also damage the warm water banks and other mechanisms ruining the banks with the motors and machines on which they land. Repeatedly, the connectors can break the banks leaving them infected and dangerous. This ultimately affects the underwater life. Reducing the variety of fishes, which are essential for attracting the visitors and ensuring the health of the area. This also results in the extinction of some rare species, which are the nature’s phenomenon.Globally, the ecotourism societies have been in progress to make betterment in this field. It is also an essential part towards the economy of the country and the tourist attractiveness. The development of social values also relies on the tourism development of any nation. The US in this context has also made vital steps to improve it.Community-based tourism is also a more critical part of development than the conventional type of travel. It does not restrict the host communities to any typical tour grasps and the wealthy people of nationally based commodities. Researchers have taken more interest in making talks about the city found ecosystems, to make a difference between the typical ecotourism and marine life tourism. Community-based ecotourism can be defined as the area where a local society has control and involvement in the development and management of the type of ecotourism (Chuamuangphan & Palmer, 2017). To enhance and develop marine ecotourism, the industry had to seek alternatives for the reason to bring more visitors in the ecotourism (Schofield et.al, 2015).These alternatives involved green eco-tourism, cultural ecotourism, community ecotourism, ethical ecotourism, health ecotourism, and other forms. In all these forms, ecotourism holds much capacity to grow. In the previous years, many people and commodities have taken part in the financing of the ecotourism development procedures. They also invest in alternative plans, because sometimes an already formed community cannot be run on a longer term, so people spend in some alternative solutions to it.Bodowski (1976) suggested a relationship between tourism and conservation. The study aimed at providing knowledge about the tourism’s contribution to the development of outcomes. The awareness of ecotourism has also made a broader issue, which says that the biodiversity or the natural characteristics are becoming commodities and the other areas are going in the past. Recent talks say that ecotourism has on only took over the interest of people, but also aided in the preservation and development of projects related to it.Geographic region of the ecosystems is essential, as an environmental factor. Two of the primary factors are considered when looking for a geographical area and its mapping. Zoning is the element which governs the objective that the site should be strictly protected, the tourism zone is free of danger, and there is a moderate zone of tourism (Schofield et.al, 2015). It helps in reducing the negative impacts on the cultural and natural environments. Access to the ecosystems should be environment-friendly. Regarding the roads, and the covers which come over the animals to protect them from danger should be in such a design, that it does not hurt the animals under water and above sea level. Noise reduction should be minimal. If some material is to be provided, hybrid or electric vehicles should be used to reduce air, water, and noise pollution.This geographical measure should also be considered in mind when making political and social aspects. Geographical aspects can also be a disaster, if not well managed. Government and public intervention both goes in hand by hand, some places locally formed institutions carry on ecotourism activities by their own accord. This locally raised institution mainly focused on small-scale tourism activities. Public gives funds and supports. Sometimes these small organizations interlinked with government agencies to carry out their tasks. Public agencies like nonprofit organization involved in the operation of ecotourism activities are fruitful.Florida key is the top side of ecotourism; it is also known as world third largest barrier reef. This side belongs Florida critical national marine sanctuary. It comprises of more than 600 plants and animal species. Which includes five types of marine turtle and endangered Florida manatee. A book receives blue star certification which recognizes the commitment to conserve reef. This region is also famous for Bottlenose Dolphins.Such kind of places is under the focus and concerned of government and private agencies. They aim to conserves those areas with a substantial policy framework and check and balance on the activities (Kontogeorgopoulos, Churyen & Duangsaeng, 2014). The primary challenge arises here how government and private institutions can consider both the profit and interest of tourists. Somehow they exist a trade-off between these both. Either you have to left one for other. But a reliable and efficient policy in its sense can deal them both in the manner that the effects of costs divided on both in such a way that neither of them affected strongly.The way out of such kind of challenges is to sort out cost-benefit analysis from where policies and actions can be executed. If available data suggests something wrong in favor of tourists or the institutions than things can be restored according to the situation. For example, if fluxes of tourist to united states are increasing which cause natural degradation than a specific level of visitors must be allocated to the considering year (Kontogeorgopoulos, Churyen & Duangsaeng, 2014). If ecotourists decrease over time that things can be changed on the policy level as well as cost and prices of the operational activities can be adjusted. These all problems are deeply rooted in the general political orientation. For example, any political party came into power with a vision to preserve natural resources than ultimately she formulates policies that discourge tourism. Same as if federal government allocate fewer budgets and raise a few funds than tourism sector will be in loose.Anyway, the government has to look whether to promote ecotourism or not.their policy formulation and institutional strength define the fate of ecotourism. Policy formulation can be incorporated into the task execution and performance of the operational bodies (Iorio & Corsale, 2014). Otherwise just raising policies and laws and order mean for not. The role of government and a private institution is diverse. As (EPA) environmental protection agency has a variety of programs to take on. These programs included as data collection, data processing, providing of free software, case studies, technical assistance and arrangement of the guide. It also carries out the task of side protection. Programs like entitled energy star, smart growth, waste-wise, water lines for voluntary efficiency, adopt the division, consumer labeling advantage, green ecotourism partnership, and healthy air transportation communities come under the domain of (EPA).EPA also has developed a model to assess economic and environmental impact costs which in turn facilitate to analysis impact of tourism activity on the environment. Thus it is way forward to take managerial decisions in the face of environmental challenges and risks. They prefer such operation through their decisions which are beneficial to environment and tourists (Wang, Cater & Low, 2016). The model is very very broad which can be applied anywhere. At the government level, it can be used to execute the tasks at a higher level, and at the local and regional level, it is referred to promote and monitor the functions at the local level. It is used to assess the impact of tourism activities on the environment at the state level. It also holds that the efficiency and productivity must be ensured. Ability holds that carrying out of an event for an extended period. It bears the future perspective within. If any task remains for more than a decades by retaining future consumption than that task or activity is called to be sustainable and efficient. While efficient means the net benefits increase while performing any operation. Efficiency can be attained by minimizing cost and increasing profits.These models maintain ten leisure activities impact on the environment. It analyses their effects on climate in term of cost or any other physical effects. It also bears the concept of natural preservations. These most impactive leisure activities which have a substantial impact on the environment are as follow, fishing, skiing, hunting, boating, golfing, casino, gambling, amusement theme park, historical places and museums, conventions and conferences, and watersides recreations (Stone & Nyaupane, 2017). The most striking impact from these ten activities was the increase of waste in water, which endangered some of the marine species. These activities mainly take places around such areas where animals and other natural sources inhabited. While performing such operations, tiurists never care about their impacts on nature. Some time birds get disturbs from their nest; the dolphin receives tease due to over bloating and unnecessary roaming around the water (Stone & Nyaupane, 2017). These impacts are measured through different indicators, like water use, biological water demand of wastewater, total suspended solids in wastewater, energy use air pollutions, hydrocarbon, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen, greenhouse gas emissions, and local stable waste generation. A single indicator can be enough to notice that environment has been effected through tourism activities. To retaliate the problems agencies get activated, they first sort of the nature of the problems than they find out the cause of the problems, than they find out the origination of the problem. After all they get to get the solutions with proper remedies and precautions. The sort solution for present and for future as well. If the problem is water pollution then the agencies make such arrangement which prevent water from pollution. Like provide awareness to the tourist through bouchers are pamphlets or they can adjust some kind of waste carrying object beside water banks to store the waste bin them despite of throwing it into the water.Developing models and sort out problems is the most important role of federal government and impowered political parties. They have full authority to raise institutions like tourism agencies, and fund raising institutions. This all scenario is driven by the political will, and political awareness. If country is honest with it self than they surely do their protect their nature and ecosystem. Their quality of protection is lies in the applicability of their policies and effectiveness of their actions. Formulation of system is not all to protect and appreciate tourism rather their practicality, efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability and reliability can matter. If theories are well developed and precisely calculated but their application on practicale ground is zero than it mean for non.United states of America is the state who nurturing ecotourism, the credit goes to their agencies, either public, private or government, and their local small tourism industries which have achieved appreciable amount of tourism targets around few decades. These all institutions are directly pivote to the political and federal setup. Which govern all activities in a coherency. Distribution of funds formulation of policies, and ensuring tourists protection and safety is the responsibility of government and political agencies.The most ten visiting and concerned areas of unioted states of America’s are, texas, maine, new York, Montana, Oregon, wasinton, Colorado, California, Hawaii, and Alaska.Alaska is the known as the most uprisng topurism industry pf America. It retain thye concept of sustainability and efficiency and productivity. This industry is the biggest tourism industry of America. The wildeness is what attract most of the tourists to the Alaska, something that is easy to understand that is to considerind Alaska as the home to bear beluga and orca whales, sea otters, moose, bald, eagles, mountain goats, puffins, and some other very very interesting birds which cataches the eyes of every person. People li8ke to vist this area for some other reasons , those are beside from its natural beauty.The next to Alaska in tourism industry is the Hawaii. Hawaii has its own beauty and attractions. It is a unique state by its nature. Though Hawaii is the diverse industry it is difficult to cover it every aspects of ecotourism rather we discusss the government role and it stratageis to carry and hold ecotourism industry in the state of Hawaii. Government intiated ecotourism stratageis for all Hawaii’s islands. The native and modern hawaiiian believes in their native tourism industry. Which achive its goal of sustainability, efficiency, productivity, and reliability in the sector of tourism. These industries and further more agencies combinly perform their tourism related activities throughout the America with a backup of political support.ConclusionBased on the study discussed above, conclusion on the marine life ecotourism can be made that, when political and social aspects are aligned together, they make it a positive aspect on the ecotourism of marine life. Comparison of the findings in the study, and with the previous research have raised a lot of implications. In this study, new aspects of political and social environment have arisen, which is considered as an isolated category and is of huge attention. This does not weaken the study, as it is separate from the viable livelihood of being interdependent. The study aims to finding more of a political and social aspect of the cause, rather than the other influences. Tourism activities needs more thorough consideration of political and social aspects and it should also be applied in the theoretical framework of the work done. Previous studies have also told about the cultural and political aspects of the marine ecotourism, had made influence on the community based tourism and its development.The degree to which people and communities tend to show interest in the ecotourism, has made this study show that the importance of ownership of ecotourism and consistent tourism development is essential, because of the external factors involved in it. Ecotourism should not be seen as a commodity which decreases with time, but reflects a moderate and vast vision of possibilities of development in the rural areas. It is often linked with the lack of interpretation, appropriate work, and lack of direction, which is shown in the case. The US authorities have shown that how the ecotourism has changed and how they have implemented the plan to make it grow even more.As, a super power for all, they are striving for ecotourism as well. Diminishing, the aspects of negative political and social factors. They also have made their political standards in the favor of marine ecotourism development.However, the lack of political capital in the initial part of the study from the US authorities, even at that time the livelihood of the prior local community aiming towards the ecosystem development. It was not the aim of the study to look for more governance problems, but aimed at looking how the political and social factors can make a huge impact. Study has also aimed on making opportunities with social aspects, that in near future how they can influence the marine life tourisms. Socially, people are tended towards the approach of marine tourism, in forms of scuba diving and real life swimming.ReferencesChuamuangphan, N., & Palmer, N. (2017). To what extent are local people actively involved in ecotourism development through choice? Exploring societal values and ecotourism sustainability in Chiang Rai.Fernando, S. L. J., & Shariff, N. M. (2015). The relationship between land use/land cover change and factors for ecotourism development in the partial nature based wetland using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Int J Sci Res Innov Technol, 2, 82-92.Iorio, M., & Corsale, A. (2014). Community-based tourism and networking: Viscri, Romania. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 22(2), 234-255.Kontogeorgopoulos, N., Churyen, A., & Duangsaeng, V. (2014). Success factors in community-based tourism in Thailand: The role of luck, external support, and local leadership. Tourism Planning & Development, 11(1), 106-124.Min, W. (2016). Stakeholders Involved in Marine Ecotourism Development Patterns. The Anthropologist, 25(1-2), 24-33.Schofield, G., Scott, R., Katselidis, K. A., Mazaris, A. D., & Hays, G. C. (2015). Quantifying wildlife‐watching ecotourism intensity on an endangered marine vertebrate. Animal conservation, 18(6), 517-528.Stone, M. T., & Nyaupane, G. P. (2017). Ecotourism influence on community needs and the functions of protected areas: a systems thinking approach. Journal of Ecotourism, 16(3), 222-246.Wang, C. C., Cater, C., & Low, T. (2016). Political challenges in community-based ecotourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(11), 1555-1568.

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