Neurology of Clinical Depression

Published: 2021-07-06 06:23:00
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Literature ReviewThose individuals who are consistently facing the problem of despair and hopelessness are showing the signs of depression. Facing with such kind of major depression, these people reduce their activities with friends, peers. Their daily routine along with the eating, working, are sleeping are difficult for them to pursue normal mood. Depressive mood influences the behavior of the individual, which lead to the occurrence of the certain changes in individual personality. Depression affects and influences the brain, along with the technological aspect associated with the intervention of the brain. There are other problems associated with the depression are the suicide, low adaptation of the social activities and the isolation. The issue of depression can pass through the families but it can also occur in those who have no family history.Brain and Nervous SystemThere are certain people who just face depression once the time in their life; there also are those who face it several times. The most dangerous or the effective kind of the depression is the major depressive disorders. Some psychologist also refers it to clinical depression. The disease affects three major parts of the brain and they are prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and the hippocampus. Memories and the production of the hormones are affected by the depression. Problems created when depressive action convince the body to release excessive cortisol, which makes the body imbalance. Otherwise, brain cells are produced in the adult life of healthy brain. People generally face memory problems with this kind of situation. The prefrontal cortex shrinking affects the emotions, decision-making abilities and in the formulation of memories.Many researchers are of the view that cortisol plays a very important role in modifying the physical and chemical actions of the brain. There a number of interventions, which one can use to rehabilitate his depressive problems? The MAOIs monoamine oxidase inhibitors are the helpful drugs for the individual to reduce symptoms of depressive depression. They increase the amount of the dopamine in the activities of the brain (Daroff, 2015). The communication and interrelation of the brainy cells also improve by using these medications. Some treatments are implied to stop such communication for the relaxation of the brain. In the same way, neurotransmitter are also affected by the depression.Some people also adopt other ways to medicate their depression and to save their brain from the mild. They use quality fruits and increase engagements in groups along with the activities, which help in the growth and repairing of the brain cells. These sensible individuals are also focused on the avoidance of drugs and alcohol, which destroy those cells of the brain. They also sleep well and try to sleep like normal individuals for the repairing of the brain cells. The neuropsychiatric research has also concluded that depression reduces the production of brain cells. The psychologist claims that depression is the common and most available disease in the different states. Certain therapies like electroconvulsive help in passing the current between the cells and enhance the communication. Similarly, psychotherapy can also help the brain of the depressive individual and strengthen it against the pressure and the stress on the brain. The prefrontal cortex also became strong applying the psychotherapy.Technology and BrainThe technology has highly influenced the working, studies and the research on the operations of the brain. The neuroimaging is the postmodern development in assessing the working of the brain along with the ratio of the depression. In the same way, before the advent of technological instruments scientist mostly have to wait for the autopsy unless assessing the brain. They also have to look at the injuries of the brain, which reveals through the behavior of the individual. However, at present, they got much from the three-dimensional images of the brain to explore the emotions, thoughts, and the assessment of the issues inside the brain. The clinicians have the privilege of unfolding the effective interventions for the depressive brains.The psychologist has implied the neuroimaging technology in order to find out those white Americans that they possess certain prejudices (Moxon, 2015). In the amygdala scientist, know that people show differences and concluded that a structure is involved in the emotional learning. Research by the psychologist also include the positives emotions. They assess the functional images of those students, which look at their lover and on the pictures of acquaintance. When individual have thoughtful look at her lover pictures the two-deep areas of the brain converse as part of the circuit, which reveals that active action is going on in the brain. Such activity also regularizes the neurotransmitter dopamine, which runs brain functions when someone accepts awards.The crises and the influence of the technology can reshape the interaction we have with each other. This alters that what makes us relax and happy. The human brain is one of the most sensitive organs and is facing new kind of threats from the postmodern technological world. The twenty-first century is making our brains with nuro-chip technology chip, which might draw the line between living and the nonliving bodies. Enhance the number of the people are applying Prozac for the reduction of their depression; they are also giving their children the Ritalin to improve the concentration on the studies. Similarly, an electronic chip that is developed by the scientist to allow that paralyzed patient to move robotic limb only through thinking about it. People do not have such kind of thoughts before that scientist will make them such a clever entity through the rigorous development of the technology.The technology also helps the specialist in determining that how the brain can develop during the infancy and adult’s age. They explore that how mental functions creates the problem for the behavior and the nervous system. Imaging tools are also used in the clinical setting along with the classrooms and for the purpose of literary experts. The experts of the educational psychology have assessed the depression level among the kindergarteners and explore the effects of depression on the reading, and learning skills of the children through the use of technology. In the same way, to help the clinical setting functional imaging is resolving the problems like posttraumatic disorder along with panic, stress disorders.History of Depression The problem of the depression is always with the humans with consistently affecting the performance and the behaviors humankind. If we simplify the case of depression it explores that people of less develop times, have seen less than we the people of postmodern age. The initial term used for the depression was the melancholia. In the Mesopotamian literature, the term existed and people of the second B.C millennium have used the term for expressing the depression. There were also certain physicians who have to intervene the problem of depression. Some of them reveal that it is not physical but a health disease that has relation with the spiritual illness.The Greeks and the Romans were also divided over the causes and the nature of the illness. They collectively assigned it as the mental and a physical health problem. Later on a historical writer, Herodotus has further explained the term by writing about a king who was attacked by the evils, which force the king to be mad (Pantazatos, 2017). Different civilizations have interpreted the term of depression in different ways like Egyptians, Chinese, and the Babylonians, who named the illness as demonic possession. One of the psychologists of Greek times Hippocrates has describes the trait and personality and suggested that depression has relation with the imbalance of body fluids that are called humor.The times of the Renaissance looks at the depression as the forward development and the regression. The killing of the mentally ill persons along with witch-hunts was common and prevalent in the European society. Some of the psychologist and specialist in the European society raises their views according to the theories propounded by the Hippocrates. They said that mental illness is due to the fact of natural causes. They also opined that witches are the disturb members of our society those need rehabilitation and the treatment. Similarly, enlighten period of the eighteenth century unfold the depression as the illness which cannot intervene and those who are facing the depression should be lockup. Most of the member of the nineteenth century, the society with depression became homeless and among those, some were sent to institutions.In the twentieth century approach towards depression changes with the view that depression caused due to the unbalancing of neurotransmitter in the brain. In the sixty or seventeenth era of the twenty-first century, frequent use of manic depression came as a reference to mood disorder. The term distinguished from the previously held unipolar depression. The American uses the term major depressive disorders in the late seventy, which became part of the diagnostic criteria. It was also used for the knowledge of symptoms of depression. The development in diagnosing and the treating depression changes according to the requirements of the time. The postmodern world with the high number of depressive people is installing technological intervention programs to address the most common illness prevailing in the society.The psychologist and the researcher associated with the science of mind have offer number of theories on depression in the mid of twenty century. One of the psychologists Elbert Ellis propounded that the causes of depression are irrational “must” and “should”, which lead to the self-blame in the times of adversity. Aaron Beck another scientist of the psychology has developed that depression comes from the negative feelings and the thinking’s about anything, future or about someone (Staneva, 2015). Half of the century ago, the illness of depression was considered as biological or the reaction to the stressful happenings. The unitary or binary model was represented as the actual reflection of the syndrome. The former model of expressing the depression by the concept of severity and it was the result of psychobiological final pathway while the later model represents differences between the reactive and biological syndromes of the depression.Certain are the persistent empirical arguments to tackle the problem of melancholia. Some are criticizing the expansion of the diagnosis link with the development of antidepressants since the times of nineteen hundred fifty. The old idea and the concept of melancholia are still operating in the kinds of depressive moods. However, the new explanation of the depression is also accepted. One of the psychologist and the writer albeit, has published DSM-IV-TR with conflicting findings in the year of two thousand. A group of the United States psychologist have propounded new term that is major depressive disorders in the years of nineteen seventy.Bio-psychologyThe analysis that how our brain works, operate and role of other neurotransmitters in influencing the feelings, behaviors, and actions of the individual is discussed under the science of biopsychology. There are the number of names and titles associated with the bio psyche. Physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and the psychobiology are some of the names often implied to explain the term of biopsychology. The psychologists under the study analyze that how emotions and biological processes interact with the mind. The imbalances in the brain functions are considered by the psychologist with the link of neurotransmitters and other aspects like dopamine, norepinephrine are affected by the depression. There is a problem in the assessment of effects on neurotransmitters that are functioning in person’s brain and related mental activity.People use the medication like antidepressant medications that are normally implied to intervene the problems of depression. The neurotransmitter serotonin is included in influencing many body functions and the activities (Pinel, 2014). Those actions are sexual behavior, mood, aggression and the eating by a person. Those people having decrease production of serotonin by the neurons there is an increased chance of attack of the depression. Similarly, through such production and in a mood state it can cause suicide by an individual. In the same way, dopamine that is associated with neurotransmitter is also linked to the depression. The prefrontal cortex is widely linked to the clinical depression. This area of the brain is consistently involved in changing the behavior and mood of the person. After its damages as seen by many certain psychosocial changes emerge in the personality of the depressive person. Different methods used to examine the damage of prefrontal cortex abnormalities in those personalities that have the problem of depression.There are different lobes that perform their functions in the different parts of the brain. These are mostly related to the process of emotions, motor skills, cognition and the sensation. The frontal lobe includes the functioning of expression of the language, higher level of cognition and the motor skills. The occipital lobe is related to the interpretation of the information and the stimuli. The sensory tactile information like touch, pressure and the pain are performed through the parietal lobe. In the same way, the procession of the memories and the explanation of the sounds and information we generally hear are operated under the temporal lobe. The activation and the process of the frontal lobe are generally changing among those individuals facing the problems of the depression.Research DesignThere are certain research design implied for the assessment of the issues of the depression. Qualitative research will be applied to answer the question related to the depression. In order to understand the best possible diagnosis and barrier that hinder the intervention, this research design will serve the most appropriate option. The study will analyze and interview the number of people associated with the depression (Shalev, 2014). Experiences and the diagnosed individuals will be used as a cooperative staff for the assessment of new patients. Through the research design, the patient will receive treatment from the primary centers and it will be beneficial for those who do not want to visit mental health hospital.The depressed people, to which interview and the study will include the life chart interview along with the visits of the mental hospital, can be implied for effective results. Polychotomous regression can imply to examine the heterogeneity of the major depressive disorders. In the same way, the studies that are associated with the longitudinal style reveals that around sixty percent of depressive people remit in a year. In the follow-up research, fifty percent patients of the depression develop the illness in the five years.Those individuals that are referred to the clinics are less fare than those who intervene in the communities. Similarly, among the adults, few individuals have shown recovery in the depressive moods. Most of them have reported the residual impairment. In the life of adults, adolescence depression predicts the number of depressive disorders. Those are anxiety, depressive, suicidal and the bipolar disorders. Unemployment and the problems associated with the physical health are also associated with the depressive disorders. Depression during the time of adolescence leads to the chronic and the relapsing disorder. Such kinds of the disorder forecast psychosocial issues and ill health problems.Ethical Issues in Research DesignIn the research design, there is always need of the flowing with certain rules. Those ethical rules can enhance the productivity and values of the mental health research. In the modern research, there are numerous challenges for the researchers as they have increased dependence on the computer, software technologies, and the internet. Privacy of depressed individuals along with the confidentiality is a challenge for the modern researchers. The research in the behavioral, social sciences and in the psychology demands personal interaction along with the collection of the information of the personality of the focused person. The breach in the collection of data will severely harm the researchers, its participants, and in the embarrassment of a person socially. The social and the economic status of the person can also harm along with the loss of his job.The privacy refers to the right of depressed individuals, which include the limited access of the other people in those aspects like thoughts, identification of the information and the information that contains mental tissues and collection of produce cells. The privacy is not included in the constitution of the United States; however, professional physicians and the researchers consider it as the basic human right. The obligation of maintaining confidentiality is one of the important points for the researchers. The council of international medical sciences and the world health organization have set certain privacy rules for the collection of information and respecting the privacy of individuals involved in the research. In the same way, the issues of the confidentiality will also influence the research design and quality of information collected from the patients of the depression (Harriss, 2015). The process of the confidentiality includes the protection of one’s privacy and treatment of his/her data should be according to the particular rules for privacy. The keeping of the personal information and the data has weight than that of sharing those data with the other people or professionals.Certain are the advantages of maintaining the confidentiality of the information collected through interviews and personal interaction with the patients with depression. The privacy will provide a healthy trust between the researcher and the participants involved in the particular research design. Other than the intervention from the clinicians, participation in the research is essential. The person will have no worry about the information he provided to the researcher. Respect, honor and the dignity of the individuals also maintain through the implication of efficient tools of privacy and the confidentiality. Protection of individual’s data will also enhance the autonomy and the control. Ethics are required to maintain the overall mortality and the quality of the research.The problem of approval of the specific research is also a big challenge for the research to maintain its reliability by focusing the latest and most neglected issues. The ethical approval of the depression-related research is an integral part of the research process. An institutional board comprises of the senior fellows and the professionals’ review the research in order to save the participants and the researcher. The expectations of the institutions or board from the person going to have research on the issue of mental health and depression are normal. They expect from researcher to provide sufficient and reliable information from the participants in order to have better and informed decision. There must not be any harm to the participant for non-involvement or for not giving certain information. Participants must be independent in deciding their inclusion or exclusion from the research at any time without having any prejudice. For anonymization and the confidentiality, the data of the participants must be secured. The ethics committees or the board will expect the worth of research for beneficial effects in diagnosing and recovering patients with depression.Influence of Stress in Developing DepressionThe researcher has explored the number of factors in the development of depression. However, studies that include rats with the humans have explored that stress is highly influencing the creation and promotion of depression. The stress decreases the abilities and the power of brain in keeping itself healthy and stable. An important aspect of our brain influences our action, memories and the learning abilities. Studies were also conducted on the brain tissues of rats to explore the physical changes happened due to the stress.The comparison between the rats reveals that those rates with stressful mind produce fewer cells than that of those which are mentally stable and free from the stress. The most important that was affected by the stress was the hippocampus that is linked to the operations of short-term memories and related functions (Staneva, 2015). One of the researchers lamented that decreasing in the production of cells cause primarily by the depression. The hippocampus shrink with depression and a stable brain have the abilities to produce and rebuild the tissues through the process of neurogenesis. Those people that are having stress often use antidepressant medicines, they can benefit but if they left the exercise of using regular medication there might be harmful effects on them (Swartz, 2015). Researchers have given a drink, which has reduced the serotonin level, which shows that depression is linked to the amount of serotonin in the brain of a person.The connection of the stress with depression is absolute. The chronic stress that includes the caring of patients with Alzheimer’s or like that of stress which involves the loss of the job or some close relative lead to the depression. The mechanism of the stress and response became overactive with both kinds of stresses. Ant kind of loss is an important factor in enhancing the depression similarly grieving is best and healthy response to the depression. However, if the grieving is taking for too long it will severally affect the depression. Serious illness including the depression is considered as the chronic stressor. Not a single individual has escape itself from the stress link with the events, like natural disasters, loss of the loved one and the job. A layoff or the acute stressor might relate to the chronic stress if the job time became too long.Studies concluded that stress is one of the important aspects of the depression in rats and humans. There are the number of physical changes occurred in those who are facing severer stress. A systematic and chemical process applied by the researcher in order to find out the stains young and fresh brainy cells (Shalev, 2014). The process enables the participant to count the number of cells produce in the brains of the rats. The study enhances the experience of individuals and makes them more focused on the finding for the elimination of stress, which badly affects the human brain and caused depression.ReferencesDaroff, R. B., Jankovic, J., Mazziotta, J. C., & Pomeroy, S. L. (2015). Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., Collins, J. F., … & Fiester, S. J. (1989). National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program: General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of general psychiatry, 46(11), 971-982.Harriss, D. J., & Atkinson, G. (2015). Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research: 2016 update. Int J Sports Med, 36(14), 1121-1124.Moxon, K. A., & Foffani, G. (2015). Brain-machine interfaces beyond neuroprosthetics. Neuron, 86(1), 55-67.Pantazatos, S. P., Huang, Y. Y., Rosoklija, G. B., Dwork, A. J., Arango, V., & Mann, J. J. (2017). Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity. Molecular psychiatry, 22(5), 760.Pinel, J. P. (2014). Introduction to Biopsychology, Global Edition. Pearson Education Limited.Rossi, S., Hallett, M., Rossini, P. M., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2009). Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clinical neurophysiology, 120(12), 2008-2039.Shalev, I., Moffitt, T. E., Braithwaite, A. W., Danese, A., Fleming, N. I., Goldman-Mellor, S., … & Robertson, S. P. (2014). Internalizing disorders and leukocyte telomere erosion: a prospective study of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Molecular psychiatry, 19(11), 1163.Staneva, A. A., Bogossian, F., & Wittkowski, A. (2015). The experience of psychological distress, depression, and anxiety during pregnancy: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research. Midwifery, 31(6), 563-573.Swartz, J. R., Williamson, D. E., & Hariri, A. R. (2015). Developmental change in amygdala reactivity during adolescence: effects of family history of depression and stressful life events. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(3), 276-283.

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