New Porphyrin Based Photosensitizers

Published: 2021-07-07 00:09:35
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Porphyrins are chemical compounds that are key in the development of large number of photosensitizers assigned for use in the photodynamic therapy (PDT). Porphyrin play a very important role in the photodynamic therapy (PDT). These roles include the transmission of oxygen and photosynthesis. Porphyrins have many areas where they are applied such as light imaging. In medicine it is used to cure cancer through photoimmunotherapy that leads to the treatment of the diseased tissue. The photodynamic therapy is used in the treatment of acne.Porphyrins comes to effect when a photosensitizer of relatively small dark toxicity administered into the body and accumulates in slowly separating the cells (Yasunaka; K. Aizawa p.34). When the drug reaches a particular ratio of accumulation in the tumour tissue together with the healthy tissue, a careful amount of light is administered on the diseased tissue and the reactive oxygen destroys the diseased tissue. The quantity of light needed is relatively large enough to kill the tumor cells, but also should be small enough to avoid destroying the closest healthy tissue. After being treated the damaged cells become healthy.Photodynamic therapy solely depends on presence of molecular oxygen. Initiation of very big atom into photosensitizers facilitates radiation less process that causes conversion of two electronic amongst them (intersystem crossing) and leads to improvement of quantum yield of singlet oxygen through photosensitization of molecular triplet oxygen, is a key component in photodynamic therapy (PDT) (Luger, T.; Schwartz p.45). Though there is little information that supports this physiological importance of heavy-atom effect.Photodynamic therapy is a method of selective toxicity because the drug shows absence biological activity until light is administered. The importance of photodynamic therapy agent is optimization tumor or tissue ratio. However, photodynamic therapy agent do not target specific receptor i.e. are site non- specific drugs. Study by Boyle and Dolphin concludes that with only one available exception to note, there is no particular location bounded by the sensitizer.An ideal photodynamic drug should have a solid absorption in the near infrared part of spectrum, relatively very large quantum production of triplet formation, richly singlet oxygen quantum production, and negligible dark toxicity (Luger, T.; Schwartz p.13). Should exhibit selectivity between tumorous tissues versus healthy tissue, the drug should be easily and simply formulated. Should be highly soluble that it should gradually clear from the body and finally should have strong proprietary position.Should have very small photo bleaching to prevent fading away of the photosensitizer so that it continue producing more oxygen. A photodynamic drug should also have a natural fluorescence (light) that has longer wavelength with lower energy than the absorbed radiation.In conclusion, porphyrin has proved to be an area to explore all over the world since it’s the first drug for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and linked areas. Most of the photosensitizers that are in existence today from various clinical tests and experiments are porphyrin based and we can predict a remained study and area of more concern to be researched on. ReferencesLuger, T.; Schwartz, T. In Photoimmunology, Krutman, J.; Elmets, C., Eds. Blackwell Scientific Ltd.: Oxford, 1995 sP.C. Wilson, In Photosensitizing Compounds: Their Chemistry, Jan 1989Johan E. Van Lier , Photosensitisation: Reaction Pathways, Jan 1991Y. Yasunaka; K. Aizawa; T. Asahara; H. Kato; I. Ishikura; In vivo accumulation of photosensitizers in atherosclerotic lesions and blood in atherosclerotic rabbit, Jan 1991Van Lier, J. E. In Photobiological Techniques; D. P. Valenzo, R. H. Pottier, P. Mathis and R. H. Douglas, Ed.; Plenum Press: New York, London, 1991; Vol. 216

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