Online to explore different countries’ 5 dimensions by Hofstede

Published: 2021-07-06 06:48:00
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Technological advancements since mid-17th century have subjected world into a new paradigm of globalization, where the concept refers to incorporation or diffusion of cultures. Technological innovations brought modern techniques into the cloud of communication as well as transportation. This ultimately brought people around the world closer to one another. For instance, McDonalds is a globally recognized network of fast food chain with more than 35,000 outlets across the world. This depict the fact that people with distinct cultures are part of the same network, where they share common motto and goal to be achieve. This creates a cultural diversity and bring people together. However, in case of obligatory stances such networks customize their policies in accordance to the the religious and cultural obligations of a particular region they are working in, ultimately creating affection in the hearts of people. Globalization by analysts has been highlighted as an economically oriented term, where trends flow from one region to another through trade. However, the analysis is true; cultures move from one place to another through movement of people from one region to another, but these trends are adapted by the people across the boundaries is not necessary.Globalization is an interesting phenomenon but at the same time it is an uncertain one. However, cultures are blended together, but still they remain distinct and comparable in several dimensions. People communicate and develop connections with one another, where in order to deal effectively and efficiently with the people across boundaries, one has to overcome cultural barriers, communication barriers and cultural distinctions, but now the question arises how to understand clear differences between different cultures? In order to deal with this concern Hofstede developed a model of cultural dimensions based upon four core dimensions, but the model was later on modified into a five (5) dimensional model. The five dimensions of the model are:1. POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI): This dimension of the cultural model is used to understand how a particular society and culture deals with the inequalities amongst its people. It deals with the unequal distribution of power amongst the population of a particular region. Cultural trends are usually embedded in a society and are passed generation to generation, therefore they usually resist any sudden change, and therefore superstructure of a society develops a hierarchal structure which places individuals on particular positions which cannot be changed easily. However, the dimension deals with the understanding of which society owes low power distance? Low power distance societies are the ones which raise their voice against the violation of rights and unequal distribution of power.2. INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV): Individualism refers to an ideology where individual is considered as self-reliant and independent. He or she is only legally bounded to take care of his or her blood relatives. In such a culture people grow independently; both professionally and personally. The ideology is quite different to that of the ‘collectivism’, where individuals are dependent financially, emotionally and legally upon one another. In such a culture people are bounded to take care of their immediate relatives as well as others in their surroundings. People in such societies grow collectively; both professionally and personally.3. MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS):Masculinity and femininity are the two dimensions, where either of them is followed by a particular society. Femininity refers to the structure of society where quality of life matters. In such a society care and affection prevails, voice is raised against the violation of rights of the weak, distribution of resources matter and modesty is found; while on the other hand masculinity refers to the structure of society where success is promoted. In such societies heroism prevails, achievement is preached and violation of rights is found. Strong competition amongst the individuals of a society is witnessed, therefore masculinity has also been termed as ‘tough’ while femininity has been termed as ‘tender’, collectively known as the tough Vs. tender dimension of the cultural model.4. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI):The dimension was included in the cultural model in order to identify how a particular society along with its members deals with concerns of future. Future is unpredictable, but the dimension explores how effectively a particular society deals with this scenario? Does the society take significant measures to frame out the future or stigmatize it as a natural phenomenon which cannot be controlled? The dimension in actual is the proportion to which a particular society deals with the confusions. It has been observed that countries with weak Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) are calm, where work matters more than the code of conduct while in countries with strong Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) have rigid code of conduct and are intolerant regarding their beliefs.5. LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERSUS SHORT TERM NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO): Each particular region around the globe has a past and a present, where it has to sustain a considerable link with its past in order to deal with its present and future concerns. However, every society has a different approach towards this concern. Regions who have less score in this dimension are considered to have short term normative orientation, where they prefer their norms more than the change. While regions who have high score in this dimension are considered to have long term orientation, where they prefer modern techniques to deal with their future activities in order to cope up with the needs of the current world.While keeping these dimensions and the above mentioned graph in mind, culture of Australia is compared with that of Pakistan. Let us talk about each dimension separately in this document:POWER DISTANCE INDEX (PDI):The above mentioned graph depicts a lower level of 36% of power distance index (PDI) in case of Australia. It highlights the fact that in Australian organizations hierarchies are developed by the superiors in accordance to their convenience, however these seniors are approachable. These organizations completely rely upon their employees for worthy output in Australia, however, seniors and juniors both share a friendly environment within their offices. While, in case of Pakistan the power distance index (PDI) is calculated to be relatively higher than that of Australia. It is calculated to be 55%. Since, Pakistan is a developing country and has a mixed economy structure, however more titled towards that of capitalism. Similar, is the case with organizations in Pakistan. A hierarchal structure is designed by the board of directors, which is then abide by whole office even the constructors too, but the work load is shared in the offices. Office environment however, is different for different offices. Employees as well as seniors share comfortable environment in many offices while at the same time they do not in other offices.INDIVIDUALISM VERSUS COLLECTIVISM (IDV):The above mentioned graph depicts quite a low score of 14% for this dimension in case of Pakistan, while in case of Australia the score is 90% which is significantly higher. This highlights the fact that people in Pakistan follow a collectivist culture while Australians follow an individualistic culture. This furthermore, highlights the reality that the people of Pakistan are likely to grow collectively, both professionally as well as personally. These individuals pay long-term concentration on the loyalty of their relations with immediate as well the extended families, they are more likely to follow the societal traditions and norms. Members of Pakistan are emotionally attached with one another. This collectivist culture is also depicted in the official organizations of Pakistan, where hiring and firing also depends upon team efforts. While, moving towards Australia statistics define that the individuals of the country follow individualistic culture, this means that they are likely to grow independently, both professionally as well as personally. People are only meant to take care of themselves and their immediate relatives. These individuals follow the same culture within their organizations, where they are independent and tend to grow in a self-reliance. The society only supports merit based promotions, where progress depends upon individual’s efforts or hard work.MASCULINITY VERSUS FEMININITY (MAS):As per the above mentioned graph Australia scores 61% in this dimension while Pakistan scores 50%. However, in this dimension both societies follow more or less common culture with few distinct features. Australian culture promotes success, and provides all benefits to the one who achieves the most. The society is based upon strong competitions amongst its individuals where strong emphasis is placed upon the achievement and success of an individual. However, coming towards Pakistan the proportion is more or less similar to that of Australia, but 50% depicts that the society follows both customs equally. Achievement and success are promoted in this society but at the same time care and affection for others also prevails, as Pakistan has a collectivist culture too.UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE INDEX (UAI):As per the above mentioned graph Pakistan scores 70% in uncertainty avoidance index, which in actual is an incredibly high figure. This depicts the fact that Pakistan is highly ignorant towards its future concerns. This shows that Pakistan has rigid code of conduct and is intolerant regarding its beliefs. This also highlights that Pakistan has a rigid set of rules, but regulation of these rules is not considered necessary, unfortunately. While in case of Australia the figure is recorded to be 51% which highlights that the country lies on the threshold, therefore it focuses on the quality of work as well as rigidity of its beliefs.LONG TERM ORIENTATION VERSUS SHORT TERM NORMATIVE ORIENTATION (LTO): As per the above mentioned graph Australia has a score of 21% which is comparatively lower than that of Pakistan’s score of 50% in this dimension. Australia owns a normative orientation which means that Australians are quite normative in their cognitive abilities and believe in achieving quicker. “People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth.” However when it comes to Pakistan, its score is quite intermediate; this depicts that the country lies on the threshold. Its people are likely to follow both short term normative orientation, where they prefer their norms more than the change and long term orientation, where they prefer modern techniques to deal with their future activities in order to cope up with the needs of the current world, at the same time.As per my analysis, the statistics regarding the culture of Australia are more or less significant, however a small variation or biasness might exist. For instance, if we talk about individualism, which refers to an ideology where individual is considered as self-reliant and independent. He or she is only legally bounded to take care of his or her blood relatives. In such a culture people grow independently; both professionally and personally. Australia, to me is somehow an accurate example of this kind of culture, where individualistic code of conduct just like America is followed. People tend to work in organizations to produce more for themselves rather than the organization. They follow the same culture within their families, they only take care of their immediate relatives, as they only believe in living life for oneself. Moving ahead if we look into the statistics of “Masculinity vs. Femininity”, we would be convinced by the figures, as Australian culture promotes success and achievement. It supports the stance “winner takes all”, therefore in order to get all one has to be the perfect one in the society.This dimension of cultural model somehow also supports the stance of individualistic culture. When a particular individual tends to grow independently while taking care of his or her own interests and growth, he or she is more likely to achieve more in comparison to that of an individual of a collectivist culture. Therefore, statistics depicted here are more or less accurate in my view point. I would like to end this report by highlighting that Australia is a country with individualistic culture while following normative values at the same time. They are rigid in their beliefs but tend to adapt modern techniques in order to bring betterment, flourishment and success to their society!!!

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