Phenomenology and Grounded Theory

Published: 2021-07-06 23:04:02
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Purpose of the StudyThe level of self-efficacy among the teachers is one of the raging debates when one talks about the education system. This is especially important for the teachers who have persisted in this line of the profession for a very long time. The purpose of this research is to investigate this phenomenon (Yalof, 2012). The study seems to find out the pattern and link that exists among teachers who have displayed a certain level of self-efficacy as far as the academic achievements of their students are concerned. At the same time, the study looks into the fact that how the peer marshaling towards the resources plays its part as far as the way completion of the program is talked about (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). This is one of the ways through which one can make sure that how the maximization of the resources at the group level problem are supposedly carried out. In some ways, the research is about the discrimination between the way grounded theory and phenomenology concepts are working out (Yalof, 2012).Roles Assumed by the ResearcherThe principles on which the study was based were about how the concept of self-efficacy is supposedly working about among the teachers, and the way development of the focus groups supposedly works out in the long run (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). At the same time, the effort was being made to make sure that the open ended assessment of the education system is carried out (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). Additionally, the core concept of how the maximization of the resources is supposed to be carried out also played its part as far as the important aspects of the theory are supposed to be looked at (Tossy & Brown, 2017). The study also talks about the way online programs are supposedly appearing as an alternative for the face to face programs that used to exist before and the subsequent impact that they have as far as the study levels are concerned.Principles Applied to this StudyOne of the key aspects that were supposedly followed during the study was to make sure that the structures of the consciousness are being looked at as far as the overall study is concerned (Yalof, 2012). The idea is to make sure that the governess and the sustained critical study is carried out (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). This is one of the core concepts that are supposedly followed when one talk about the way phenomenology principles of study is talked about. The research makes a deliberate attempt to unrest the structures and the experience of the consciousness that is witnessed during the overall study at this level (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). The other underlying principle during the study was to make sure that neither the inductive nor the deductive reasoning is applied. Instead, the abdicative reasoning was being used to conclude as far as the overall premise of the study is talked about at every level. The approach towards which the research work is about carrying out the comparison between the phenomena and the context (Tossy & Brown, 2017). This is especially important to make sure that the theoretical base of the concept is strong.Having a strong theoretical base is strong in the case of this study so that the relevant connection and hypothesis is created to reach towards a conclusive result (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). When looking at the way the grounded theory, the researcher is supposed to review whatever the data that they have collected. The initiation of the grounded theory is likely, to begin with, the question so that the collection of the qualitative data is carried out in an according to manner. At the same time, the researcher is supposed to review the data that is collected during the study, and effort must be made to make sure that the repeated ideas are not looked at (Tossy & Brown, 2017). The concepts and the elements must also become apparent (Cascio, 2014). At the same time, they must be tagged with the codes, the same codes that are extracted with the help of the data. As more and more data is collected, and the previous data is reviewed, the likelihood increases that these codes can be grouped into the concepts (Cascio, 2014). These concepts can be further broken down into the categories (Yalof, 2012). The way the grounded theory works is that whatever the new concepts are added are quite different as compared to what one gets to see in the traditional model of the research (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). This theory mainly came into existence when there was a wave of criticism towards the fundamentalist and structuralist theories that were deductive and speculative.Data Collection StrategiesAs far as the strategy that was pursued the data collection. Some of the strategies that were carried out are as followed.Focus GroupsInterviewsOpen ended written questionsThe idea behind this rationale was to make sure that the precise answers are taken from the teachers but also giving them enough space so that they can articulate their thought process in a better manner. Not only that, the overall teaching ambiance that was witnessed during the classroom is also taken into consideration (Norton, 2013). The usage of the focus groups was an important addition to the study as even though it created issues as far as the way timidity and self-reservation of the student emerged, it also provided a fair insight about how the intellectual capacity of the students is supposedly carried out.Ethical Issues in the ResearchOne of the key issues that are encountered during such research is that own the explanation of the trustworthiness and the reliability is supposed to be looked at. At the same time, when emerging themes are studied in any research, there are bound to result that might contradict what the teachers are thinking, and that might also create a degree of discomfort among the students (Cascio, 2014). The other major issue was to make sure that the name of the school and the teacher must stay confidential (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). To encounter this situation, pseudonyms were being used so that the negative impact in case of their names getting published should be avoided in the first place. The other major ethical issues were to make sure that how the determination of the theoretical sampling was supposed to be carried as information was solicited in each to the cases (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). Even though enough care is taken when it comes to the confidentiality of the people and teachers who are involved in the research, this is a major ethical issue in the research.Challenges and the Limitations of the StudyOne of the biggest challenges that were faced during the study was to make sure that teachers can speak and provide their perspective about the way things work (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). The effort was made to make sure that the participants in the study are open to the discussion and they are not at all inhibited when providing the information. But that was a challenging part as most of the times; teachers were far from comfortable when providing the information (Norton, 2013). The teachers thought were reminded again and again about the nature of the study and the extent of professionalism that was involved in the whole case. The other major issue was the way concept of self-efficacy is being looked at (Norton, 2013). Self-efficacy is a term that has different interpretations when it comes to the way teaching is carried out among different age groups (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). And again, some of the teachers were having a real hard time opening up to the concept and the premise of the study (Norton, 2013). Then there was an issue as far as the willingness of the teachers is concerned (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). Teachers were sometimes quite willing to the way study was working, but at times, as there was no monetary compensation involved, they were not forth going when it comes to the level of cooperation that is needed in such studies. So that was another major area of concern when one talks about these studies at the whole level (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014).Effectiveness of the StudyWhen looking at whether the study is effective or it isn’t, the idea is to make sure that the implication of the practice is looked at. There must be enough implications for the practice at the end of the study. In that regard, the probability of the success is related to the direct availability of the resources that people have at their disposal as well as the ability towards the expansion of the psychological resources so that the help can be received (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). In that regard, both the studies have provided enough working ground whether the concept of self-efficacy is witnessed in the classroom as well as how staffs have to change the assignments with the passage of time when the related studies are supposedly looked at. The study has also created a successful link as far as the association between the two domains is to be looked at so that the results that are yielded out of it are valuable, to say the least.Additions and Modifications to the StudyWhen carrying out any result, the important thing is to make sure that there must be hypothesis and the variables that are supposedly used during the stud must be defined in a clear and precise manner. If that does not happen, research turns out to be a mere recollection of the facts that are encountered during the whole course of the study. That does not seem to be case in both the studies as even though strong theoretical context is provided in both the cases, and it provides ample knowledge and base from which future research can be carried out, but it does not give much of an idea about how the progression of the results is supposedly carried out. So this is one of the things that is needed to be changed and other than the theoretical insight, some other insight is needed to be presented in the study. The other thing that can be worked upon in both the studies is that at times when the facts are stated, there must be some rationale background that must be provided towards the whole thing (Norton, 2013). That is missing in this study and facts are presented during the study without prior referencing to the previous research (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2014). At times, it appears that the personal judgment is being reached out reach towards the conclusion. This is another area where some value can be added towards the whole study so that much more clear perspective can be developed and further clarity is soughed out.ReferencesCascio, M. I., Magnano, P., Elastico, S., Costantino, V., Zapparrata, V., & Battiato, A. (2014). The relationship among self-efficacy beliefs, external locus of control and work stress in public setting schoolteachers. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2(11), 149.Norton, S. M. (2013). A phenomenological investigation into the self-efficacy beliefs of teachers who have persisted in the teaching profession. Liberty University.Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2014). Teacher self-efficacy and perceived autonomy: Relations with teacher engagement, job satisfaction, and emotional exhaustion. Psychological reports, 114(1), 68-77.Tossy, T., & Brown, I. T. (2017). Cultivating recognition: A classic grounded theory of e-learning providers working in East Africa. In Information Technology Integration for Socio-Economic Development (pp. 193-259). IGI Global.Yalof, B. (2012). Marshaling resources: A classic grounded theory study of online learners (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University).

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