Positive Psychology Interventions Portfolio

Published: 2021-07-07 00:06:15
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IntroductionMy first experience to the positive psychology was transpired during a therapy course for mental health improvement.  The therapy was adopted for healing post-traumatic stress disorder and cure mental illness. I attempted for recruitment test for the prestigious governmental institution but unable to pass the test shook me off to trauma and state of uncertainty. This condition asked for a treatment and therapy course was prescribed. This session was formulated in a calm environment with mindful and relishing exercises and positive orientation (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). The purpose was to reduce stress, embrace the situation with an optimistic attitude, enhancing the sense of motivation and positive emotions.This course of the period was undertaken following positive psychology interventions to cure stress and mental illness after trauma. I found the session helping and positive as these interventions allowed me to alleviate stress and adopt the optimistic approach (Peterson, 2006). However, the purpose of this session to diminish the effects of a traumatic incident and cure mental illness rather than improve mental health. Therefore, the prospect of assessing and practising these positive psychology interventions was new to me and my learning through master course has enabled me to experience these exercise to improve normal mental health (Peterson, 2006).This new perspective will help to better understand the practical aspects of Positive Psychology. While Positive Psychology Interventions (PPI) is defined as mindful activities and treatment methods aiming at the improvement of mental health and cultivate positive behaviours (Sin & Lyubomirsky, 2009). I believe that one cannot understand this phenomenon until it is practically applied as researcher argues that positive psychology needs to be applied and implemented for complete insight (Peterson, 2006). Therefore, I have chosen Gratitude (Emmons, McCullough, & Tsang, 2003) and Best Possible Self (King, 2001) positive psychology interventions to experience.Gratitude is stated when someone is positive and grateful for what life has given to him/her. This is a social emotion which is experienced when the act of kindness is performed without reward by another individual (Emmons & McCullough, 2004). The gratitude intervention is linked to the cultivation of many positive emotions like happiness, satisfaction, optimism and hope (Fleming, 2006; Overwalle, Mervielde, & Schuyter, 1995). This process requires the cognitive process involved and understand the acts of virtue and kindness as a subjective appraisal of the situation (Pavot & Diener, 1993).Whereas, Best Possible Self is a technique that helps an individual to envision future in the positive and optimistic way (King, 2001). This technique has been demonstrated to increase the people’s well-being and positivity about their life and future goals. The research king when introduced and created this intervention, he developed this technique from the writing expressions to help the people who survived through traumas. Here, personal writing expressions enable the individuals to image about the ideal life that they aim to achieve in future.These interventions have been chosen to recognize the sense of thankfulness and happiness for what life gives you and adoption of positive approach for personally being well in future. Further reasons to select these interventions are discussed in next sections.Personal use of Interventions I have been a brilliant student throughout my educational career with distinctions which develop a sense of pride. Furthermore, for the recruitment test, I had prepared with full concentration and hard work but other aspirants were better than me and they got appointed. Due to high hope and confidence, I didn’t expect the failure but results gave a nervous breakdown (Fleming, 2006; Overwalle, Mervielde, & Schuyter, 1995). I experienced series of traumatic events afterwards and that inculcated negativity and pessimistic thoughts in my mind. After the psychological therapy, I was able to accept the reality and turn back to life but my mind was stuck. During my lectures on positive psychology and well-being, I learned that self-assessment positive psychology interventions can be helpful to maintain mental health and enhance positive attitude.Gratitude: Intervention 1 The gratitude intervention was chosen because being negative all time due to traumatic events followed by failure made me less optimistic. I consider myself hopeful and optimistic but these events made me far away that state. Therefore, I decide to look into positive again and count blessings and good things around, I should be grateful of. Additionally, I attempted an online strengths assessment questionnaire VIA and it indicated that I am a creative person but less grateful. These results made me realize that I need to focus on my life and count all facilities, luxury life, benefits, family and perks of being graduated from prestigious university. I have been always more focused on achieving more and success in future but unfortunately, ignoring the present blessings made me less motivated and pessimist. This intervention was the great way to turn negativity into positivity and my concern was to enhance this virtue in me intentionally by focusing on psychological scores through concerned questionnaires and pattern of changes (Scheier & Carver, 1992; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994).Literature on Gratitude             Gratitude is one of the most regarded traits in many cultures and it can be observed as emotion, morally regarded virtue and someone’s habit (Emmons et al., 2003). The experience of gratitude requires the ability to be distinguished from others as the grateful person will have cognitive sophistication (Rash, Matsuba, & Prkachin, 2011). Researchers have explored the impact of gratitude on happiness (Emmons et al., 2003)  and positive emotions i.e. well-being, optimism and hope (Fleming, 2006). The people who are grateful in their lives are more prone to grateful experiences and they get a wider array of exposure to different circumstances in life.To induce gratefulness, the researchers have identified three methods for this, gratitude lists, behavioural expression and gratitude contemplation. If people want to analyze and draw constructive lists of things they are grateful for, these are the required to list down the things they feel grateful for- gratitude listing (Wood, Froh, & Geraghty, 2010). In a study of Wood and colleagues, they barely developed a link between well-being and gratitude. Thus, a research has investigated the impact of gratitude interventions on well-being by exploring their short and long-term effects (Rash et al., 2011). The results show that people having gratitude trait when exposed to the intervention, they were more satisfied than those who are not grateful (Rash et al., 2011).In recent studies, a meta-analysis was presented on gratitude interventions where researcher studied the affected size through a number of studies on the subject and suggested that this cause-effects through interventions can be asserted through placebo effects (Davis et al., 2016). However, previous research has promoted that any self-discipline gratitude activity will enhance and elicit positive gains. Thus, we believe that gratitude listing will be a source of positive effects (Fleming, 2006; Overwalle, Mervielde, & Schuyter, 1995).Application MethodThe gratitude intervention followed in this paper was consisted of listing the three things, I feel grateful for or felt gratitude towards. This activity was carried out for two weeks, daily, to write down thing that I felt grateful for in a day and how they were grateful to me (Seligman, Rashid, & Parks, 2006).Reflection This practice cast a positive impact on my daily routine as this found to be a pleasant exercise to enhance the positive feeling. I realized that I was more prone to notice small activities and appreciating events happening around me that increased my observation power like passengers being grateful to me on the train. I also found that this activity caused greater impact on my behaviour with others and my others behaviours towards me during the session (Seligman, Rashid, & Parks, 2006).Best Possible Self: Intervention 2 Being good scorer and dominant student in my education career had a huge impact on my personality and self-confidence. I always used to be appreciated for my achievements and I had envisioned myself a successful candidate who can’t face any defeat because I believed that I am well-deserving for all good. Beside the failure I met, I got admission for my masters in university again and continued my achievements in the same manner. I have always been team player and group leader for all university projects and my group mates used to believe in my competencies. The “Best Possible Self” (King, 2001) intervention allows an aspirant to envision and write about his/her personal future endeavours where every aspect is positive and happy. I have chosen this intervention as I believe that I am able to envision and visualize my future and best possible self to me. This activity would develop optimism and sense of capability and direction that would help me to improve my goal-setting and general well-being. As thinking of goal and pointed direction will increase motivation to chase it.Relevant Literature Review The Best Possible Self-intervention was created to help the trauma survivors but it is reconceived as a positive way to embrace the optimistic approach towards future (Meevissen, Peters, & Alberts, 2011). This technique is based on a positive future thinking where an individual thinks about every optimal way in future that can be happened to him (King, 2001). The research carried out by King highlighted these positive aspects where his subjects written their narrative descriptions about their best possible self ( how do they imagine themselves in the best possible way in future?), these positive gains were well-being, confidence and optimism (King, 2001).The research on this intervention has shown that self-assessment or self-expression writings have positive impact on well-being (Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006) whereas they are other positive outcome explored by researchers including reduction in goal setting conflict (Pennebaker, 2004), improvement in self-control (Lyubomirsky, Sousa, & Dickerhoof, 2006), enhanced positive thinking (Fordyce, 1983) and increased optimism (Peters, Meevissen, & Hanssen, 2013). Over the years, best possible self-has been empirically improved to improve people’s mood and well-being (King, 2001; Peters et al., 2013; Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006). However, the researcher has argued that thinking about optimal happenings will make people expect about favourable outcomes (Peters, Flink, Boersma, & Linton, 2010) and the impact of positivity and optimism is short-lived (Meevissen et al., 2011).The research on Best Possible Self has also found that there is very little long-term influence on the long-term optimistic attitude (Peters et al., 2010). The results from this intervention are positive but limited because they rely on the self-reported questionnaires. Additionally, the results gathered from the research are required to be interpreted carefully because this intervention is studied on a non-representative population sample.Application MethodThis technique was required to envision and express about futuristic best possible life events outlined by three aspects; personal, professional and interpersonal. The activity was performed for one week, every day, to write about a specific topic by visualization for 2 minutes. The visualization was important to include the cognitive process of writing to complete the purpose of exercise (Holmes, Mathews, Mackintosh, & Dalgleish, 2008). Additionally, a direction about the small goal-setting statement was also required to increase the positive impact on goal setting because goal setting is positively related to the well-being.Reflection My experience with this activity was very motivating and satisfying because it was easy to schedule and evoked positive emotions in me while visualizing and writing about my future personal and relational life. While writing about professional life, I felt very optimistic and empowered. As these feelings had short-term effect so  I used to reread my visionary notes and feeling about the emotions I experienced while writing them to maintain motivation and optimism.Reflection on the Questionnaires Questionnaire 1: Satisfaction with Life ScaleThe first questionnaire I employed was Satisfaction with Life Scale devised by Diener and colleagues with the purpose to assess an individual’s overall satisfaction from his/her life (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). This measure was introduced with the generation of 48 items at first to reflect the satisfaction and well-being of life. Later, employing factor analysis, these 48 items were confined to 10 and then further reduced to 5 items. This scale is used in positive psychology intervention to calculate life satisfaction as a cognitive constituent of well-being (e.g. “I am satisfied with my life”).The Satisfaction with Life Scale is five-item scale with 7-item Likert style having a range of strongly disagree=1 to strongly agree=7 to afford maximum possible options. Total scores have a range of 5 to 35 where 20 scores represent the neutral state while scores between 5 and 9 show that respondent is extremely dissatisfied. The scores between15-19 indicate slightly dissatisfaction. 21-25 represent slightly satisfaction while scores ranging from 31-35 show that respondent is extremely satisfied with his/her life.After studying the distinction between hedonic and eudaemonic well-being, I preferred to choose this scale as this scale assesses the life satisfaction as a whole and enables an individual to detect his/her life satisfaction as per someone’s own criteria. I have chosen this scale because I wanted to realize the overall happiness and positivity coming to my life with the exercises of these Positive Psychology Interventions (PPI) (Scheier & Carver, 1992; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994).Literature Review for Satisfaction with Life ScaleThe Satisfaction with Life Scale is grounded in psychological theories and associated with well-being (Rash et al., 2011). The satisfaction of life and being happy and satisfied with what you have is mainly the main interest of human well-being. The previous researchers have identified the two broad aspects of subjective well-being having an emotional component and a cognitive component (Pavot & Diener, 1993). This scale was developed to give attention to a cognitive component of subjective well-being (Andrews & Withey, 1976) which was relatively neglected than affective or emotional component.The Satisfaction with Life Scale was developed to measure the life-satisfaction and was administered to undergraduate students, nurses, adults, elderly adults and women are various studies as this scale has widespread utilization and participants from various age groups can be added (Durak, Senol-Durak, & Gencoz, 2010). There are many components of good life having many social and financial aspects as well as health concerns but every induvial has unique criteria to judge and assess someone’s own satisfaction from life. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a general perspective for all individuals or various demographical backgrounds to assess their satisfaction with life. In short, this scale has been used in relation to enhancing the positive sense of happiness and overall global life satisfaction of an individual to assess the subjective well-being (Pavot & Diener, 1993).Critical Evaluation I administered the Satisfaction with Life Scale before undertaking the Best Possible Intervention and then after seven days activity, I reattempted the test. This scale was very easy to attempt and quick to complete. My initial score was 17/35 showing that I am slightly dissatisfied from my life satisfaction, my post-intervention scores after seven days were 22/35 which doesn’t show any significant difference as these scores show slightly satisfaction from life. The structure of questionnaire is very straight as there are not any filler items on the scale. The items are all in a positive direction and one can attempt the questionnaire in specific pleasant or unpleasant mood which cannot ensure reliable scores.However, I felt that I benefitted from the experience and looking for theoretical underpinning made me able to analyze the similarities and difference I encountered. The research related to scale gave me the adequate knowledge to articulate the well-being measures in different contexts. As, there are measures for hedonic and eudemonic well-being perspectives, also the cognitive and subjective components of subjective well-being. I personally believe that this is a very helpful tool in training and coaching to raise the key areas to highlight the potential well-being of individuals. Furthermore, this scale has the ability to applied to different sets of the population with diverse backgrounds and cross-generational social patterns. Therefore, this would be helpful in training with diverse socio-economic and cultural settings.Questionnaire 2: Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R)The second questionnaire selected was Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) was devised by Scheier and colleagues (Scheier & Carver, 1992; Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994). This test introduced a measure of dispositional optimism which is benefit from psychological well-being and reflects the individual’s expectations for the future events. Here, the optimist is all those individuals who are able to anticipate good things about their future and imagine that what will happen to them (Carver, Scheier, & Segerstrom, 2010). I have chosen this scale because I am interested to know the level of optimism I have while experiencing the puzzled period of life counting post-traumatic disorder. I am also interested to know that whether Best Possible Self-intervention with goal setting and visualization orientation would increase the level of optimism in me. The LOT-R scale ten statements in total where three items are related to positive direction while three are asked in the negative direction and four are filler statements. The original LOT has 12 item scale attributing 4 items to positive, 4 to negative and 4 items to filler statements (Scheier & Carver, 1985). The total scores have a range of 0 to 24 inferred on one continuum where items 3, 7 and 9 are reserved scored. Each statement is scored on 0-4 Liker scale where 0 indicates strongly disagree and 4 means strongly agree.Literature Review on LOT-R The initial and main purpose of the articulation of this scales was the examining the beneficial effects of optimism on psychological well-being (Vautier, Raufaste, & Cariou, 2003). Optimism is related with the theories of motivation and goal setting direction because it is regarded as the ability of an individual to assess that goal can be achieved and results will be aligned with the expectations, even in extreme dramatic and challenging situation, because they can predict future events in a better position (Herzberg, Glaesmer, & Hoyer, 2006). However, optimism has been theorized in two ways; stable personality trait and explanatory style. The stable personality trait is formed in early childhood and it partially inherited (Carver et al., 2005) while explanatory style is formed under social encounters over the time and this can be enhanced through specific training programs (Peterson & Bossio, 2001).The advanced debate rages that whether optimism and pessimism are on opposite ends of scale continuum (Rauch, Schweizer, & Moosbrugger, 2007) or they both are two different constructs in fact (Herzberg, Glaesmer, & Hoyer, 2006). The researcher has different stances and critical affiliations with a particular aspect. Thus, LOT-R is enabled distinct scores underpinned by optimist and pessimism one single continuum and these scores indicate a relative situation on that one continuum (Peters et al., 2010)Critical Evaluation I carried out this test just before and right after the completion the activities under to positive psychology interventions. There are some factors which are important to consider regarding this questionnaire. The test was easy to undertake and I completed it quickly as well. Therefore, it can be used in large population groups or during training to help an individual to improve his/her state of optimism. It was very easy to score the responses, although the filler items and reversed scored items cause little complexity to the scale but careful and attentive attempt to the attend the scale will not make an issue (Pavot & Diener, 1993). I also realized that there are not any significant instructions about score interpretation and there were not any labels referring to general or specific sets of respondents. This criterion makes the measure able to be implemented in large settings where data is a need and can easily be manipulated. Although, the absence of labels and precise cut-off will create bit complexity to identity different population groups with diverse backgrounds.Despite is a slight difficulty, this tools is recommended to the large settings and on to one coaching contexts (Herzberg, Glaesmer, & Hoyer, 2006). Personally, I found this exercise very good to enhance my self-awareness and increase knowledge of optimism. I became able to know about my level of optimism and how this can be maintained and learned.Critical Evaluation of Positive Psychology QuestionnaireIt is evident that people express wish to be happy when they are asked (Diener, 2000). It is human nature that they need satisfaction and happiness state and this makes sense because the state of ‘happiness’ has many benefits on human’s social life and health. These benefits are related to individual’s sound mental health, better cognitive improvements will confirm better social outcomes- social behaviours (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005). The Positive Psychology Interventions (PPI) tend to increase the individual’s happiness in many ways and ‘happiness’ as the word itself gives positive feelings when used. As research confirms that happy people are more successful, healthier and socially engaged (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005).From personal experience, I have found this portfolio assignment a great source of motivation to explore the widespread benefits of Positive Psychology. While researching, to begin with, the Positive Psychology Interventions, I came to realize that Psychology used to practice for mental illness some years ago, the recent modern concepts of Psychology allow the individuals to assess their happiness, positive emotions and well-being through self-reported scales and measurements (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). I hoped that I will get benefits, in fact, I was encouraged that my positive mindset will be resumed with the practice. According to self-concordance model, an individual’s ability for being motivated to gain benefits from the questionnaires and interventions will also influence on his/her experiences towards research (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). Therefore, I was motivated enough to gain maximum benefit from this activity and this encouraged me to make a more sustained effort and as result, I experienced a greater sense of well-being.My goal from personal portfolio management was to research and study about the questionnaires and interventions to undermine my negative perspective towards life. I have been an optimistic and positive individual towards everything, I have also been blessed and grateful for the blessings I have had. The traumatic events changed my approach towards life, although I recovered through the therapy, my aim was to undertake this exercise to maintain my mental health and improve my cognitive sophistication to deal with future challenges. I was keen and motivated to gain from these scales and also reflect that through their reliability, validity and application.The questionnaires, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and Life Orientation Test- R (LOT-R) very simple and self-administered. From Satisfaction with Life Scale, I was not familiar with the application outcomes of this scale so scores I got, were not intended to improve my overall satisfaction with life (Herzberg, Glaesmer, & Hoyer, 2006). My pre-interventions scores were 17/35 depicting that I am slightly dissatisfied with my life. These scores had not any impact on my intention and wish to be more satisfied with life. Rather post-intervention scores 22/35, slightly satisfied, prompted substantial personal reflection which gave me a direction to ponder in this regard and having optimistic future-oriented thoughts for goal-setting. Similarly, my scores on LOT-R were moved from 17/24 pre-intervention to 19/24 post-intervention, indicating a slightly high level of optimism in me about future goal setting (Herzberg, Glaesmer, & Hoyer, 2006).Critics of self-report questionnaires report that it involves individual’s own self which is critical to asses. The Satisfaction with Life Scale was developed to give a judgment about someone’s overall satisfaction from life to depict social well-being. However, it criticized that it cannot consistent results e.g. during traumatic life experiences like divorce, respondent cannot assess overall life satisfaction (Pavot & Diener, 1993). Similarly, LOT-R is very simple to use but suits the larger populations or in research projects. Overall, it was very informative experiences personally and questionnaires were seemed accurate and in-line with literature directions and gave a reflection of my optimism and well-being.Critical Evaluation of Positive Psychology Interventions The interventions I chose were “Gratitude Intervention” and “ Best Possible Self” because all positive psychology interventions have not the same outcome or carried out in the same way, although the purpose is inculcating positivity in one’s self.  All PPIs are found positive and engaging with enjoyable and thought-provoking activities, all have a positive impact on psychological well-being and these interventions impact personal improvement(Seligman et al., 2005). Similarly, gratitude intervention results in the same manner for me and caused a relative impact on my personality and mental process. The effort put into the practice has a greater impact on results along regularity as it becomes a habit with is likely to maintain the impact. Research argues that the human brain never stops working or growing and constantly involved in operations (Sacks, 2010), therefore the more practice we put in an activity, the more it connections it creates and turns over to be a habit and seamless.The application of gratitude intervention has short-lived experience as it has a little long-lasting impact on one’s self to be grateful. Different studies have explored the certain diversity in changes when they were asked to write down the thing, they are grateful for (Rash et al., 2011). The gratitude intervention leads to improvement in well-being and strengthens the positive thoughts and relationships, both in research and in personal. While experiencing, I encountered all those positive happenings around me which were neglected before. People in classrooms, bus stations, my friends, relatives and family and my motivation and positive observation brought significant changes in the improvement of my relationships as well. The lectures and content being taught evoked new ideas and enlightened my understandings of the overall experience. Another constant factor that affected intervention was human interaction and I noticed significant changes in my personality and my approach towards life.My experience with ‘Best Possible Self’ inspired for improvement in subjective well-being. It was a pleasant experience to write about a specific topic. It was mood-lifting process while visualization about future and imagine the best possible self, intervention improved optimism. While both interventions improved positive emotions but “Best Possible Self” has a larger impact on my overall mood and outlook. This was more well-articulated and structured as this finding stimulated a need to recognize fully and how and why positive psychology interventions generate positive impact when seeking use in a coaching context. However, it is very critical to know that how best possible self will work for the future client to increase impact.The positive-activity model provides outline the factors that are important to consider for ensuring high results of intervention on well-being (Lyubomirsky & Layous, 2013). The influential factors can be placed according to its features with personal-fit because it will determine the overall impact. The usefulness of positive psychology interventions is not promising for all and in all situation, as it is not a ‘one size fits all’. Thus, the subject needs to determine that how a specific intervention relates to his situation and enjoys the best gains. In my case, results were promising but as mentioned earlier, positive mindset towards psychological interventions is an important factor that influences positive outcomes.It is also important to mention that during drafting this portfolio, I was motivated to get engaged in various positive psychology programs. It seems that application of these interventions has acted as a catalyst for further intention to pursue these interventions as part of daily routine to evoke positive feeling and thoughts. This period has enabled me to seek for my own happiness through an increased sense of empowerment and well-being. Throughout the application of interventions, I fostered the sense of calmness and observation which helped me to visualize and anticipate the positive forthcoming. This session was also helpful to soothe out stress and provide ways to practice the options which were not considered earlier due to hesitation or sense of fear.Overall Learning from Positive Psychology PortfolioThis assignment has given deep insight into positive psychology and how interventions improve the social and mental condition of an individual. My previous knowledge on positive psychology specifically understanding about Positive Psychology Interventions was very limited. This practice has increased my general understanding and significant knowledge about positive psychology and its psychological underpinnings. The learning I gained from this course lectures motivated me to learn more about the practicality of psychological theories and I wanted to get more knowledge specifically about positive psychology and well-being. Thus, completing the VIA survey online promoted me to learn about my personality. I felt that I am generally a positive and optimistic person but having ‘Gratitude’ as one of my lowest traits, forced me to experience this portfolio more diligently.I completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale which gave me a clearer understanding of my global satisfaction with life. As subjective well-being is assessed through this scale, so the scale gave me clearer insights into the overall satisfaction I feel from my life. Although I feel that this scale will produce varied results when attempting in different spans but it gives you an indication to undertake possible solutions to improve the overall life perspective. Similarly, LOT-R scale added to my learning and understanding of theories that highlight the role of optimism in human well-being. It also helped me assess my scores on optimism and reflect my position about how optimistic outlook I have towards future. Additionally, I learned the human personality has two aspects; the one which is formed in early childhood and the one the forms later and can be improved with specific training sessions.Being more critical about my learning, I have also learned that negative insights about self-reporting scales and tools that they need to be carefully reported due to subject bias, this increased my awareness about various tools and assumptions associated with them. Further, for have a better understanding about positive psychology questionnaires and criteria to evaluate its reliability and validity, I had to study various questionnaires available, their usage, suitability with my personal goal and various aspects to practice them aligned with the adopted positive psychology interventions.Furthermore, my learning gained from experience of two interventions led me to have a positive and optimistic stance about future while embracing everything I already have. I was not comfortable to share my personal views with others and make friends but this short period has injected pleasant changes in myself which are pointed by a social circle as well. Besides all these positive changes, I feel able to experience further interventions and study the related literature and conditions which stimulates the development of such interventions. I am also interested to enhance my knowledge on the practicality of these questionnaires and interventions in diverse settings and longitudinal studies (Seligman, Rashid, & Parks, 2006). In conclusion, this assignment was challenging but rewarding where I have experienced practical gains in my personality, learning and overall life satisfaction.ReferencesAndrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: The development and measurement of perceptual indicators. New York: Plenum. doi, 10, 978-971.Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical psychology review, 30(7), 879-889.Carver, C. S., Smith, R. G., Antoni, M. H., Petronis, V. M., Weiss, S., & Derhagopian, R. P. (2005). Optimistic personality and psychosocial well-being during treatment predict psychosocial well-being among long-term survivors of breast cancer. Health psychology, 24(5), 508.Davis, D. E., Choe, E., Meyers, J., Wade, N., Varjas, K., Gifford, A., . . . Griffin, B. 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