Type 2 Diabetes and Its Association with Lifestyle

Published: 2021-07-07 00:08:28
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IntroductionIn the recent past, changes in human lifestyles and behavior have been greatly influenced by a rise in the rates of infectious and non-infectious diseases in Africa. It hypothesized that the lifestyle of Cameroonian Africans leads to a positive flux in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Subsequently, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will expectably rise widely in sub-Saharan Africa, with a double probability in Cameroon. This is so particularly in town areas where changes in human behavior are radical (Choukem et al., 2007). Cameroon suffers from over nutrition with their diet mainly be made up of of red meat, cornflower products, and palm oil (Mbanya, 2006). In Cameroon, food intake is based on three meals a day with a rural diet comprising of traditional staple foods, and the urban diet incorporating more foods that are modern. Yams, corn in ground form, white rice, sweet potatoes, cocoyam, cassava and banana form some of the staple foods in Cameroon.MethodsThe research utilized cross-sectional data sourced from a sample population of 1279 individuals. The research design and data collection methods were formulated to in tandem with the first, second and third steps of the “WHO STEPS instrument, Version 1.3, for non-communicable diseases and their risk factor surveillance” (WHO STEPS, 2003). Standardized methods were employed to assess lifestyle factors as well as the prevalence of diabetes. The study population was Cameroonians aged 25 years and above residing in urban areas. Individuals suffering from psychotic illness, pregnant women as well as those who could not walk unaided were excluded from the study. The research employed a multistage methodical selection scheme, which was stratified by age. A questionnaire was also used to determine expanded, basic fundamental, and elective variables in line with demographic and socio-economic data, diabetes and its risk factors, including physical activity, tobacco, and dietary habits.ResultsThe prevalence rate with respect to age for diabetes was 9 percent. A worsening glycemic status was generally linked to body mass index, increasing age, diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Irrespective of the measure utilized, some of the inherently strong independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes to emerge were obesity and overweight. Prevalence of diabetes was higher in females than in males. The higher the age, for instance, 46 and above, the higher the danger of having diabetes compared to normal and young population. Risk doubled or even tripled for individuals aged 56 years and above. People who ate more servings of vegetables and fruits were found to have a higher risk to diabetes.DiscussionThe study examined some hypothesized and proven risk factors to assess their association with type 2 diabetes in Cameroon. The type 2 diabetes age-standardized prevalence rate was found to be 9 percent, indicating that diabetes in Cameroon is uncommon. This rate is higher than certain reported proportions in particular researches done in Africa (Nyenwe, 2003). Notably, body mass index, increasing age, diastolic and systolic blood pressure were associated with worsening glycemic status. Excess body fat has been well documented as a risk factor for various chronic illnesses, including diabetes, cardiovascular conditions, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension (Poulter, 1985). In both genders, body stout was the key life display for being obese and overweight. The research found that obesity and diabetes, as has been accordingly documented, go hand in hand with obesity being by far the sturdiest adjustable hazard issue for type 2 diabetes (Rimm et al., 1993).Conclusion/ RelevanceWith a growing number of lifestyle hazard influences to type 2 diabetes in Cameroon, diabetes was thus found to have a high prevalence in middle and elderly individuals. The results concluded that there was a high occurrence of “type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glycemia” in Cameroon. In addition, there was a high occurrence of obesity and overweight. Women over 35 years of age were found to have a higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Therefore, the research findings indicate the need to employ policies that facilitate the reduction of the burden of type 2 diabetes as well as obesity through the provision of accessible health care services. Furthermore, there should be a special focus and care towards women and those in lifestyle transitioning.ReferencesMbanya JC. The Quarterly update from the World Diabetes Foundation. 2006. International Diabetes Foundation.Choukem, Simeon Pierre et al. “Hypertension In People With Diabetes In Sub-Saharan Africa: Revealing The Hidden Face Of The Iceberg”. Diabetes Research And Clinical Practice, vol 77, no. 2, 2007, pp. 293-299. Elsevier BV, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2006.11.007.WHO/NMH/CCS/03.03 version. STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS). 2003.Poulter NKKHBMMPWSPea. Determinants of blood pressure changes due to urbanization: a longitudinal study. 3, 5375-5377. 2008. J Hypertens 1985.Ebenezer A.Nyenwe OJO, AEIAOaSB. Type 2 diabetes in adult Nigerians: a study of its prevalence and risk factors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. 62[3], 177-185. 3003. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.Rimm EB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rosner B, et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of diabetes in women. Am J Public Health 1993 Feb;83(2):211-4.

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